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Table Of Contents

1General Overview
OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION
STRUCTURE OF THALLUS
UNICELLS AND UNICELL COLONIAL ALGAE
FILAMENTOUS ALGAE
SIPHONOUS ALGAE
PARENCHYMATOUS AND PSEUDOPARENCHYMATOUS ALGAE
NUTRITION
REPRODUCTION
VEGETATIVE AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Binary Fission or Cellular Bisection
Zoospore, Aplanospore, and Autospore
Autocolony Formation
Fragmentation
Resting Stages
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Diplontic or Gametic Life Cycle
Diplohaplontic or Sporic Life Cycles
SUMMARIES OF THE TEN ALGAL DIVISIONS
CYANOPHYTA AND PROCHLOROPHYTA
GLAUCOPHYTA
RHODOPHYTA
HETEROKONTOPHYTA
HAPTOPHYTA
CRYPTOPHYTA
DINOPHYTA
EUGLENOPHYTA
CHLORARACHNIOPHYTA
CHLOROPHYTA
ENDOSYMBIOSIS AND ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTIC ALGAE
2 Anatomy
CYTOMORPHOLOGY AND ULTRASTRUCTURE
OUTSIDE THE CELL
. Simple cell membrane (Type 1)
Type 1: Simple Cell Membrane
Type 2: Cell Surface with Additional Extracellular Material
Mucilages and Sheaths
Scales
Frustule
Cell Wall
Lorica
Skeleton
Type 3: Cell Surface with Additional Intracellular Material in Vesicles
First Level
Second Level
Third Level
FLAGELLA AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES
Flagellar Shape and Surface Features
Flagellar Scales
Flagellar Hairs
Flagellar Spines
INTERNAL FEATURES
Axoneme
Paraxial (Paraxonemal) Rod
Other Intraflagellar Accessory Structures
Transition Zone
Basal Bodies
Root System
Swimming
Movements Other Than Swimming
Buoyancy Control
How a Flagellum Is Built: The Intraflagellar Transport (IFT)
How a Flagellar Motor Works
INTERNAL FLAGELLAR STRUCTURE
How a Paraflagellum Rod Works
PHOTORECEPTOR APPARATA
TYPE I
TYPE II
TYPE III
PHOTOSENSORY PROTEINS AND METHODS FOR THEIR INVESTIGATION
Rhodopsin-Like Proteins
Flavoproteins
Action Spectroscopy
Absorption and Fluorescence Microspectroscopy
Biochemical and Spectroscopic Study of Extracted Visual Pigments
Electrophysiology
Molecular Biology Investigations
HOW ALGAE USE LIGHT INFORMATION
Photocycling Proteins
Sensitivity
Noise
Direction
Guiding
Trajectory Control
Signal Transmission
An Example: Photoreceptor and Photoreception in Euglena
CHLOROPLASTS
Cyanophyta and Prochlorophyta
Glaucophyta
Rhodophyta
Heterokontophyta
Haptophyta
Cryptophyta
Dinophyta
Euglenophyta
Chlorarachniophyta
Chlorophyta
NUCLEUS, NUCLEAR DIVISION, AND CYTOKINESIS
EJECTILE ORGANELLES AND FEEDING APPARATA
SUGGESTED READING
3Photosynthesis
LIGHT
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS
PSII and PSI: Structure, Function and Organization
ATP-Synthase
ETC Components
Electron Transport: The Z-Scheme
Proton Transport: Mechanism of Photosynthetic Phosphorylation
LIGHT-INDEPENDENT REACTIONS
RuBisCO
Calvin Benson Bassham Cycle
Carboxylation
Reduction
Regeneration
Photorespiration
ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS: THE BALANCE SHEET
4Biogeochemical Role of Algae
ROLES OF ALGAE IN BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
LIMITING NUTRIENTS
ALGAE AND THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
ALGAE AND THE NITROGEN CYCLE
ALGAE AND THE SILICON CYCLE
ALGAE AND THE SULFUR CYCLE
ALGAE AND THE OXYGEN/CARBON CYCLES
5Working with Light
WHAT IS LIGHT?
HOW LIGHT BEHAVES
SCATTERING
ABSORPTION: LAMBERT–BEER LAW
FIELD INSTRUMENTS: USE AND APPLICATION
RADIOMETRY
MEASUREMENT GEOMETRIES, SOLID ANGLES
RADIANT ENERGY
SPECTRAL RADIANT ENERGY
RADIANT FLUX (RADIANT POWER)
SPECTRAL RADIANT FLUX (SPECTRAL RADIANT POWER)
RADIANT FLUX DENSITY (IRRADIANCE AND RADIANT EXITANCE)
SPECTRAL RADIANT FLUX DENSITY
RADIANCE
SPECTRAL RADIANCE
RADIANT INTENSITY
SPECTRAL RADIANT INTENSITY
PHOTOMETRY
LUMINOUS FLUX (LUMINOUS POWER)
LUMINOUS INTENSITY
LUMINOUS ENERGY
LUMINANCE
LAMBERTIAN SURFACES
UNITS CONVERSION
Radiant and Luminous Flux (Radiant and Luminous Power)
Irradiance (Flux Density)
Radiance
Radiant Intensity
Luminous Intensity
Luminance
Geometries
PAR DETECTORS
PHOTOSYNTHESIS–IRRADIANCE RESPONSE CURVE (P VERSUS E CURVE)
PHOTOACCLIMATION
6Algal Culturing
COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND PRESERVATION
CULTURE TYPES
CULTURE PARAMETERS
TEMPERATURE
PH
SALINITY
MIXING
CULTURE VESSELS
MEDIA CHOICE AND PREPARATION
FRESHWATER MEDIA
MARINE MEDIA
Seawater Base
Nutrients, Trace Metals, and Chelators
Vitamins
Soil Extract
Buffers
STERILIZATION OF CULTURE MATERIALS
CULTURE METHODS
BATCH CULTURES
CONTINUOUS CULTURES
SEMI-CONTINUOUS CULTURES
COMMERCIAL-SCALE CULTURES
Outdoor Ponds
Photobioreactors
CULTURE OF SESSILE MICROALGAE
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATIONS OF ALGAL DENSITY AND GROWTH
GROWTH RATE AND GENERATION TIME DETERMINATIONS
7 Algae and Men
INTRODUCTION
SOURCES AND USES OF COMMERCIAL ALGAE
FOOD
Cyanophyta
EXTRACTS
Agar
Alginate
Carrageenan
ANIMAL FEED
FERTILIZERS
COSMETICS
THERAPEUTIC SUPPLEMENTS
TOXIN
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Algae Anatomy Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Algae Anatomy Biochemistry and Biotechnology

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Published by Asaad Lahmar
algae anatomy biochemistry and biotechnology
algae anatomy biochemistry and biotechnology

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Published by: Asaad Lahmar on Nov 20, 2013
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02/10/2014

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