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Topic 8 Electromagnetic Induction and Induct Ance

# Topic 8 Electromagnetic Induction and Induct Ance

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Physics electromagnetic topic, electric and eletronic, physics for higher learning, electromagnietic induction, direct current, magnetic flux, circuit analysis
Physics electromagnetic topic, electric and eletronic, physics for higher learning, electromagnietic induction, direct current, magnetic flux, circuit analysis

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03/05/2014

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INTRODUCTION
The discovery of electromagnetic induction by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831 has changed our understanding of electricity and magnetism. Prior to that, it was known that a battery was a source of electromotive force (emf). However, in electromagnetic induction, the changing magnetic flux through a
TTooppiicc

88

Electromagnetic

Induction

and

Inductance

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:1.

Calculate the magnetic flux through a surface; 2.

Calculate the induced electromagnetic force (emf) of the electromagnetic induction process according to faraday’s and lenz’s laws; 3.

Calculate the motional emf is created in a conductor moving in a uniform magnetic field; 4.

Explain how changing magnetic fields induce circulating currents or eddy currents in conducting materials; 5.

Describe the principle of an inductor as device to store an electrical energy in the form of a magnetic field; 6.

Define self inductance and mutual inductance and apply them to related  problems; 7.

Calculate the energy stored in an inductor and to define the magnetic energy density; and 8.

Describe the principle and uses of a transformer.

TOPIC 8 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND INDUCTANCE
118
circuit induces an emf and an electrical current in the circuit and also in a neighboring circuit. A changing current in a coil induces an emf in adjacent coil. The coupling between the coils is known as the
mutual inductance
. This is the  principle of a transformer used to step the voltage of an alternating current (ac) up and down. Thus phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is the central principle  behind the operation of power-generating stations and transformers. In this chapter we will discuss how electromagnetic induction occurs in a circuit  by changing the magnetic flux, which causes a motion of charged particles in a conductor, thus inducing an emf or a current through a coil of conductor. Faraday’s law and Lenz’s law are the central principles of electromagnetic induction. The effects of electromagnetic inductions are numerous, depending on the type conductor exposed to the change of magnetic flux. We will also learn about inductance RL circuits and transformers.
MAGNETIC FLUX
The concept of magnetic flux is vital in order for us to understand the occurrence of electromagnetic induction. An emf is induced in a coil whenever there is a change in the magnetic flux through it. In Topic 6 we learned how a magnetic field can be described in terms of magnetic lines of force. In this context, the magnetic lines of force help us visualise the magnetic field but provide us with no information on the “strength” of the field. In order to know this, we need to utilise the magnetic flux. Recall that we identified the electric flux through a surface as the number of electric field lines passing through the surface. We will now define the magnetic flux in a similar way. Consider a single turn coil of area
A
. Let the normal to this surface area make an angle
θ
with the uniform magnetic field
B
passing through it. Figure 8.1. Then, the magnetic flux through the coil is defined as: cos
B
BA
θ
Φ =
(8.1)  Notice that cos
B
θ
is just the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the coil.
8.1

TOPIC 8 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND INDUCTANCE

119
Figure 8.1:
Definition of magnetic flux
When 90
o
θ
=
, the magnetic field lines are parallel to the plane of the loop, then the flux is zero. See Figure 8.1(a) On the other hand, when 0
o
θ
=
, the field is  perpendicular to the plane of the loop and the flux is at the maximum value of
BA
. See Figure 8.1(b).
Figure 8.2:
The Minimum and maximum flux through a coil
Magnetic flux thus is a measure of the number of magnetic field lines passing through the surface of the coil. For a bar magnet, the flux lines are more concentrated at the poles, where the magnetic field strength is the greatest. If the coil contains more than one turn, then the flux through the coil is the sum of the total flux through all the individual turns. This is called the flux linkage through the whole coil. If the flux contains
N
turns, then the total flux linkage is given by: cos
B
NBA
θ
Φ =
(8.2) The SI unit of magnetic flux is equal to the unit of magnetic field (T) times the unit of area (m
2
) or the Weber (Wb). 1 Wb = 1 T. m
2
.