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Environmental Resource Use Conflicts: The Case of NW Saskatchewan Metis

Environmental Resource Use Conflicts: The Case of NW Saskatchewan Metis

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A paper written by Brian Joubert and Debra Davidson in the

Posted at: http://www.humanecologyreview.org/pastissues/her171/Joubert.pdf
A paper written by Brian Joubert and Debra Davidson in the

Posted at: http://www.humanecologyreview.org/pastissues/her171/Joubert.pdf

More info:

Published by: Lawrence J. Barkwell on Nov 21, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/21/2013

 
Kclobtodh mndstrumtovosk, dbturc bdl lossndbdt `bdl usc vb`ucs9 \jc mbsc nf dnrtjwcst ]bsabtmjcwbd Kïtos
Erobd Inuecrt2
Lcpbrtkcdt nf Cbrtj bdl Btknspjcrom ]mocdmcsSdovcrsoty nf B`ecrtbClkndtnd, B`ecrtbMbdblb
Lcerb I. Lbvolsnd
Lcpbrtkcdt nf Uurb` Cmndnky Sdovcrsoty nf B`ecrtbClkndtnd, B`ecrtbMbdblb
Jukbd Cmn`nhy Ucvocw, Vn`. 28, Dn. 2, 5727
 2
©]nmocty fnr Jukbd Cmn`nhy 
 Bestrbmt
\jc ebsos nf cdvorndkcdtb`-rcsnurmc mndf`omts os nftcd bt-troeutbe`c tn jctcrnhcdcnus vb`ucs systcks ectwccd uscr hrnups tjbt sjbrc pbrtomu`br `bdlsmbpcs bdl bmmnkpbdyodhrcsnurmcs. B strndh mbsc mbd ec kblc fnr tjc mndstrumtond nf tjcsc vb`ucs tjrnuhj b lob`cmtom ectwccd tjc pjysomb` `bdl-smbpc bdl `ovcl cxpcrocdmcs wotjod tjbt `bdlsmbpc o.c. cdvo-rndkcdtb` vb`ucs bs jyerols nf snmob` mndstrumtovosk bdl rcb`kbtcrob` cdvorndkcdts. Ssodh tjc ecdcfots nf bd ‚brtcfbmtub`mndstrumtovosk‟cpostckn`nhywcjohj`ohjt tjc `bdl usc bdvb`uc mndf`omts ectwccd twn mu`turb` hrnups wotj loffcrodh cd-vorndkcdtb` vb`ucs9stbtc-mnrpnrbtc fnrcst kbdbhcrs bdl  Kïtos Benrohodb` hrnups od ]bsabtmjcwbd prnvodmc,Mbdblb.\jos pbpcr johj`ohjts tjc vb`uc struhh`c ectwccd tjcschrnups nvcr tjc sbkc `bdlsmbpc bdl cxbkodcs tjc okpbmt nd Kïtos trblotondb` `bdl uscs,tjc rcsu`todh `bdl kbdbhckcdt  pbrblohk ebscl nd tjc lnkodbdt vb`uc systck bdl tjc lctro-kcdtb` nutmnkc nf tjos pnwcr struhh`c tn cffcmt `bdlsmbpcmjbdhcjbs jbl nd trblotondb` `bdl uscrs`oactjc Kïtos.
 Acywnrls9
 Kïtos,fnrcstry,Dnrtjwcst ]bsabtmjcwbd,`bdl-usc mndf`omt,kclobtcl rcb`osk-mndstrumtovosk.
Odtrnlumtond
Mndf`omts ectwccd Kïtos Benrohodb` mnkkudotocs bdlstbtc bdl mnrpnrbtc fnrcst kbdbhckcdt bhcdts od Dnrtjwcst]bsabtmjcwbd,Mbdblb,brc rcprcscdtbtovc nf kbdy `bdl-uscmndf`omts ectwccd Benrohodb` pcnp`c bdl prnpndcdts nf cx-trbmtovc rcsnurmc odlustrocs. \jc Kïtos brc ndc nf Mbdblb‟slostodmt bdl `chb``ycdtot`cl benrohodb` hrnups1 lcsmcdlbdts nf odtcrkbrrobhcs ectwccd Forst Dbtond pcnp`cs bdl Curnpcbdsctt`crs. \jcy jbvc b jostnry nf rc`obdmc nd `nmb` cmnsystcksfnr tjcor `ovc`ojnnl,bdl tjcor mu`turc jbs eccd sjbpcl tn b soh-dofombdt cxtcdt ey tjos rc`btondsjop (]jnrc bdl Ebrawc``2??8). ]odmc 2??7,mndf`omts nvcr rchondb` fnrcsts jbvc odtcd-sofocl od rcspndsc tn b hrnwodh fnrcstry odlustry prcscdmc,bdl tjc prclnkodbdmc nf stbtc bdl mnrpnrbtc odtcrcsts od lc-mosonds-kbaodh,wjn tcdl tn pronrotozcmnkkcrmob`ozbtond pn-tcdtob` nvcr trblotondb` usc vb`ucs (Blbknwomz ct b`. 577<1Ecma`cy bdl Anrecr 2??6). Kbdy Kïtos tbac ossuc wotj tjosvb`uc systck,bdl wotj tjc `okotcl odf`ucdmc bdl ecdcfot tjbttjcyfcc` tjcyjbvc eccd hrbdtcl od fnrcst kbdbhckcdt. \jos stuly johj`ohjts dnt nd`y tjc losmndmcrtodh pcrpct-ubtond nf tjcsc `bdl usc mndf`omts,eut b`sn prnvolcs fcrto`chrnudl fnr blvbdmodh nur mndmcptub` udlcrstbdlodh nf mnd-f`omts nvcr dbturc vb`ucs. Ebscl nd cxtcdsovc foc`lwnra,tjcbok nf tjos pbpcr os tn c`omot jnwloffcrcdt adnw`clhcs bdlvb`ucs nf dbturc wotjod bdl ectwccd mu`turcs mndtroeutc tnmndf`omt nd ku`top`c `cvc`s,od tjc mndtcxt nf b dbrrbtovc bdb`y-sos nf mndf`omts nvcr fnrcst rcsnurmcs od dnrtjwcstcrd]bsabtmjcwbd frnk b Kïtos pcrspcmtovc,b mu`turb` hrnup tjbtjbs rcmcovcl `css prcss rchbrlodh `bdl usc struhh`cs tjbd ntjcrBenrohodb` hrnups. Xjo`c tjc tnpom nf Benrohodb` `bdl uscprne`cks od tjc fbmc odlustrob` knlcrdoty os dnt dnvc`,tjcfbmt tjbttjcsc mndf`omts pcrsost bftcr lcmblcs nf mrotomb` bdb`y-sos os mndmcrdodh. \jos pbpcr blnpts b kclobtcl rcb`osk-mnd-strumtovosk bdb`ytomb` bpprnbmj odtrnlumcl ey ]uttnd (577<),mb``cl ‚brtcfbmtub` mndstrumtovosk.‟Bs sumj bd bpprnbmj c`u-molbtcs,mndf`omts mbd ckcrhc od rcspndsc tn rbpol mjbdhcs odcmnsystck scrvomcs tjbt tjrcbtcd `ovc`ojnnls nf mcrtbodhrnups,eut tjc nutmnkcs nf sumj mndf`omts brc jcbvo`y odf`u-cdmcl ey odmndhrucdt vb`ucs systcks jc`l ey loffcrcdthrnups,bdl tjc lostroeutond nf lcmosond-kbaodh pnwcr bkndhtjnsc hrnups. Xc forst sukkbrozc erocf`y tjc losmop`odbrystbdlnffectwccd rcb`ost bdl mndstrumtovost cpostckn`nhocstjbt os pcrvbsovc od tjc snmob` smocdmcs,bdl knrc rcmcdt bt-
Ucscbrmj od Jukbd Cmn`nhy 
 
5
Jukbd Cmn`nhy Ucvocw, Vn`. 28, Dn. 2, 5727
tckpts bt rcmndmo`obtond. Xc tjcd prcscdt b dbrrbtovc bdb`ysosnf tjc Kïtos pcrspcmtovc nd `nmb` `bdl usc vb`ucs bdl bmtovo-tocs.
‚Brtcfbmtub`-mndstrumtovosk‟bs bdb`ytomb` `cds
‐Xjbt os ecyndl nur nwd saod bmtub``y cxosts. Eut tjc‚cdvorndkcdt‟os `brhc`y wjbt wc kbac nf ot,wotj b`` tjc bk-eohuotocs odjcrcdt od tjc wnrl
kbac
(]okknds 2??=,=).\jc `ndhstbdlodh lcebtc ectwccd snmob` mndstrumtovostsbdl rcb`osts rchbrlodh snmocty‟s rc`btonds wotj ‚dbturc‟pcrsosts(scc 577=1 Wrnmtnr 2??:1 Unmaknrc 57731 ]npcr 2??3),bdlos bd okpnrtbdt cpostckom dcxus fnr smjn`brs nf cdvorndkcd-tb` snmob` smocdmc. ]trndhcr fnrks nf mndstrumtovosk vocw dbturc bs b sct nf snmob` olcbs tjrnuhj wjomj dbturc os rcprnlumcl sueicmtovc`ytjrnuhj tjc `cds nf tjc odtcrprctcr (]tnllbrt 5773). B mnd-strumtovost vocw nf dbturc os tjus b sueicmtovc`y kclobtcl ndc1tjc odtcrprctovc mbpbmotocs nf snmob` bhcdts brc `okotcl ey tjcbhcdt‟spbrtob`,vb`ucs-ebscl pcrspcmtovc (]uttnd 577<). Bssumj,tjc rn`c nf tjc pjysomb` `bdlsmbpc os csmjcwcl1 tjc dbt-urb` wnr`l od ots kbtcrob` stbtc os nf `ott`c mndmcptub` odtcrcstnr ckporomb` mndscqucdmc.Hroclcr bdl Hbranvomj (2??<,5)c`benrbtc,‐...`bdlsmbpcs brc rcf`cmtonds nf mu`turb` olcdtotocs,wjomjbrcbenut us,rbtjcr tjbd tjc dbturb` cdvorndkcdt‛1 bdlbrctjus sueicmt tn ku`top`c syken`om kcbdodhs. Ucb`osts,od mndtrbst,bmmnrl bdb`ytomb` prokbmy tn tjckbtcrob` bdl prcsukbe`y neicmtovc fcbturcs nf snmob`-cmn`nh-omb` rc`btonds. Uchbrl`css nf nur odtcrprctbtondb` `okotbtonds,tjcrc os b kbtcrob`-cmn`nhomb` suestrumturc odjcrcdt tn ‚db-turctjbtos prokbry(]tnllbrt 57731 ]uttnd 577<),bdl ‐ju-kbds brc dnt frcc tn mndstrumt dbturc iust bs tjcy p`cbsc‛(Kbrtc`` 2??< od ]uttnd 577<,66). \jc ‐rcb` tjodhjbs b jn`cod tjc nzndc `bycr,bdl ‐...bd cxm`usovc ckpjbsos nd losmnurscbdl sohdofombtond mbd vcryrcblo`ybppcbr cvbsovc nf cmn`nho-mb` rcb`otocs bdl orrc`cvbdt tn tjc tbsa nf bllrcssodh tjck‛(]npcr 2??3,:).Ucmcdt smjn`brsjop mrotoqucs
entj
pcrspcmtovcs,luc tn bkutub` bsmroptond tn bdtjrnpnmcdtrosk (Murry 577=),bdl tntjc rclumtondostom tcdlcdmocs okp`omot od cbmj(ndc snmob``y,tjc ntjcr kbtcrob``y) (Cdtroaod 2??6). Jukbds odtcrbmt wotjtjcor cdvorndkcdts od rcmoprnmb` wbys,bftcr b``,bdl adnw`-clhc,vb`ucs bdl ctjoms lcvc`np nut nf b lob`cmtom ectwccdpbrtomu`br snmob` hrnups bdl `bdlsmbpcs,tjrnuhj entj kbtcr-ob` bdl okkbtcrob` odtcrbmtonds (Cvbdnff 5773). Jukbds entjmndstotutc bdl brcmndstotutcl eytjc dbturb` bdl snmob` cdvo-rndkcdts tjcyodjbeot1 mndstrumtcl bdl kbtcrob` rcb`otocs od-tcrscmt1 bdl tjc pcrmcovcr bdl pcrmcovcl brc odtcrlcpcdlcdt(Murry577=). Mndstrumtonds nf dbturc,od ntjcr wnrls,mbd ececst udlcrstnnl mndtcxtub``y,tjrnuhj tbmto`c (kbtcrob`)spbmcs (Mbrn`bd 57761 Kbmdbhjtcd bdl Srry 2??:). Xjcdtjc kbtcrob` mjbrbmtcrostoms nf rchondb` cmnsystcks brc mnd-solcrcl od mndiudmtond wotj `ovcl cxpcrocdmcs bdl tjc mnd-strumtcl pcrmcptonds nf tjc ‚dbturc‟nf tjbt spbmc,tjc odtcr-rc-`btondsjop ectwccd tjc snmob` mndstrumtonds nf dbturc bdl tjcrcb` kbtcrob` dbturc os rcvcb`cl (Mbrn`bd 57761 Murry 577=1Kbmdbhjtcd bdl Srry 2??:). Od jos stuly nf ‐scdscs nf p`bmc‛cspnuscl ey dnrtjcrd Xosmndsod rcsolcdts,fnr cxbkp`c,]tcl-kbd (577=,682) mndm`ulcs,‐b`tjnuhj snmob` mndstrumtondsbrc okpnrtbdt,tjcy jbrl`y brosc nut nf tjod bor9tjc `nmb` cdvo-rndkcdt scts enudls bdl hovcs fnrk tn mndstrumtonds.‛]uttnd‟s (577<) ‚brtcfbmtub` mndstrumtovosk,rcfcrodh tntjc kcbds ey wjomj cxpcrocdmcs wotj tjc kbtcrob` cdvornd-kcdt odf`ucdmc tjc mndstrumtond nf vb`ucs (bdl adnw`clhc) nf dbturc,bppcbrs cspcmob``y wc``-suotcl tn npcrbtondb`ozbtond nf tjos kclobtcl mndstrumtovosk/rcb`osk frbkcwnra. ]uttnd(577<) lcsmroecs tjc kcbds ey wjomj pjysomb` `bdlsmbpc bt-troeutcs brc trbdsfnrkcl odtn snmob` syken`s tjrnuhj ‚pbrtom-u`br ckecllcl snmob` prbmtomcs(scc b`sn Hroclcr bdlHbranvomj 2??<). \wn nf tjcsc prbmtomcs brc pbrtomu`br`y rc`-cvbdt tn ckporomb` cxbkodbtond9
losmnursc
jnwpcnp`cspcba nf bdl wrotc benut dbturc1 bdl
ckenlokcdt 
tjc wbypcnp`c scdsc nr cxpcrocdmc dbturc (]uttnd 577<). Loffomu`tocs od ckporomb` cxbkodbtond nf sumj mndmcptsrcsu`t frnk tjc fbmt tjbt sumj odtcrbmtonds nftcd bppcbr quotcsuet`c bdl `btcdt tn tjc mbsub` nescrvcr.Wn`otomb` mndf`omtsnvcr cmnsystck scrvomcs,jnwcvcr,prnvolc b uscfu` `cds odwjomj tjcsc ckecllcl snmob` prbmtomcs brc cxprcsscl (]tnl-lbrt5773). Mndtcsts ectwccd snmob` mndstrumtonds nf dbturcmbddnt ec udlcrstnnl blcqubtc`y,jnwcvcr,wotjnut bttcdtondtn tjc rn`c nf pnwcr od kn`lodh tjc fnrkbtond bdl brtomu`btondnf cmn`nhomb` vb`ucs bdl eymndscqucdmc `bdl usc prbmtomcs,bd c`ckcdt tjbt jbs rcmcovcl smbdt bttcdtond od tjos enly nf smjn`brsjop.
Kïtos @bdl Ssc bdl Jostnromb` Mu`turc-Dbturc Uc`btondsjops
Jostnrom trblotondb` `bdl usc (\@S) bdl jbrvcst nf wo`l-prnlumts ey Kïtos od Mbdblb os wc`` lnmukcdtcl,bs os tjc odf`ucdmc nf tjcsc prbmtomcs nd Kïtos mu`turc(Eur`cyct b`.2??51 KbmLnuhb` 57761 Wc``ctocr 2?8<1 Wbddcanca 2??:1]prcdhcr 2?8:),b mrotomb` odtcr-rc`btondsjop tjbt mndtoducs tn prclnkodbtc od Kïtos mnkkudotocs od dnrtjwcst]bsabtmjcwbd (Blbknwomz ct b`. 577<1 \neobs ct b`. 2??<).\rblotondb` `bdl uscs brc mndsolcrcl povntb` tn mnkkudotybdl mu`turb` jcb`tj,bdl jbvcfnstcrcl cdvorndkcdtb` stcw-brlsjop (]jnrcbdl Ebrawc`` 2??8). Ubpol mjbdhcs tn Kïtos`bdl usc bmtovotocs od dnrtjwcst ]bsabtmjcwbd jbvc nmmurrclod rcmcdt ycbrs,jnwcvcr,luc tn tjc hrnwodh pronrotozbtond nf odlustrob` fnrcstryod rchondb` `bdl kbdbhckcdt p`bddodh(Blbknwomz ct b`. 577<1 Lnskbd ct b` 57721 Jbcdcr ct b`.
 Inuecrt bdl Lbvolsnd
 
Jukbd Cmn`nhy Ucvocw, Vn`. 28, Dn. 2, 5727
 =
5772). ]bsabtmjcwbd Cdvorndkcdt bdl Ucsnurmc Kbdbhc-kcdt (]CUK) bdl tjc `nmb` fnrcst kbdbhckcdt mnrpnrbtondtjc twn enlocs wotj lorcmt butjnroty nvcr `bdl-usc lcmo-sond-kbaodh od tjc rchond “ ckp`ny b ‐mn-kbdbhckcdt bp-prnbmj‛wjomj stopu`btcs tjc dccl fnr mndsu`tbtond wotj `nmb`mnkkudotocs. Entj jbvc kbdlbtcl suppnrt fnr loffcrcdt fnr-cst vb`ucs,odm`ulodh trblotondb` `bdl uscs,tjrnuhj odtchrbtcl`bdl usc p`bddodh (Blbknwomz ct b`. 577<1 ]CUK wcesotc).\jos os od bmmnrlbdmc wotj tjc 2??3 ]bsabtmjcwbd @ndh-\crk Odtchrbtcl Fnrcst Ucsnurmc Kbdbhckcdt W`bd,wjomjb`sn bmadnw`clhcs tjc vb`uc nf mnkkudoty odvn`vckcdt bdl`nmb` adnw`clhc od sustbodbe`c fnrcst kbdbhckcdt(]bsabtmjcwbd Hnvt. 2??3). Lcspotc stbtcl kbdbhckcdthnb`s,`nhhodh npcrbtonds jbvc okpnscl sohdofombdt mjbdhcsnd `nmb` `bdlsmbpcs wotj lorcmt mndscqucdmcs fnr wo`l`ofc jbr-vcsts,trbppodh,bdl ntjcr \@Ss (Lnskbd ct b`. 57721 Knrtndct b`. 2??<). ]uescqucdt lcm`odcs od bmmcss tn trblotondb` `bdl-ebscs bdl tjcor prnlumts jbvc eccd bmutc snurmcs nf mndmcrdbkndh tjc Kïtos (Wnc`zcr bdl Wnc`zcr 2?:6).\jcsc cvcdts pnsc tjc fn``nwodh qucstonds wotj rc`c-vbdmc tn smjn`brsjop nd snmon-cmn`nhomb` rc`btonds,bdl tnKïtos cffnrts tn prntcmt tjcor rohjts92) Jnw ln Kïtos cxpcro-cdmcs wotj bdl ckenlokcdts nf dbturcodf`ucdmc tjcor vb`ucs>5) Jnw brc loffcrcdmcs ectwccd tjc vb`ucs systcks jc`l eytjc Kïtos bdl eyfnrcst odlustryprnpndcdts rcf`cmtcl od mur-rcdt mndf`omts> Bdl =) wjbt brc tjc okp`ombtonds fnr snmob`wc``ecodh nf tjc Kïtos,bdl tjc cmn`nhomb` wc``ecodh nf tjcortrblotondb` tcrrotnry>
Lbtb bdl Kctjnls
Lbtb wcrc lcrovcl frnk 66 scko-strumturcl odtcrvocws,mndlumtcl ey udovcrsoty rcscbrmjcrs od tjc sukkcrs nf 5773bdl 5776,od cohjt prclnkodbdt`y Kïtos mnkkudotocs odDnrtjwcst ]bsabtmjcwbd. B`` cohjt mnkkudotocs brc wotjodnrblibmcdt tn tjc =.= ko``ond jcmtbrc Fnrcst KbdbhckcdtBhrcckcdt brcb nf ndc odlustrob` fnrcstry mnkpbdy. Uc-scbrmjcrstbrhctcl Kïtos pbrtomopbdts wotj lorcmt `bdl usc cx-pcrocdmc,sumj bs trbppcrs,judtcrs,mnkkcrmob` fosjcrkbd,huolcs,`nhhcrsnr pcnp`c wjn jbrvcst kclomodb` nr fnnlp`bdts rchu`br`y.Odtcrvocws mndsostcl nf twc`vc prokbry qucs-tonds bs wc`` bs dukecr nf prnecs. Jnwcvcr,mcrtbod qucstondspcrtbododh tn jostnrom bdl murrcdt usc nf fnrcst prnlumts,bm-tovotocs nd tjc `bdl ebsc bdl pbrtomopbdts vocws nd fnrcstrypn`omocs bdl `nmb` odvn`vckcdt od kbdbhckcdt lcmosonds,h`cbdcl knst nf tjc odfnrkbtond uscl od tjos stuly. \wn nf tjcknst fruotfu` qucstonds odm`ulcl ‐Jbs ynur usc nf tjc fnrcstmjbdhcl od tjc pbst lcmblc> Of sn,jnw> Of ycs,ynu jbvc cx-pcrocdmcl mjbdhcs,jnw ln ynu cxp`bod tjc mjbdhcs nf ynurusc nf tjc fnrcst>‛bdl ‐Jnwjbvcynu bttckptcl tn bllrcssynur mndmcrds,cotjcr benut tjc jcb`tj nf tjc fnrcst,nr benutrcstromtonds nd ynur bmmcss tn tjc fnrcst> Jnw cffcmtovc wcrctjcsc cffnrts>‛Odotob` odtcrvocw rcspndlcdts wcrc purpnsovc`y mjnscdey mnkkudoty `obosnds,bdl suescqucdt odtcrvocwccs wcrcolcdtofocl tjrnuhj tjc usc nf b sdnweb`` tcmjdoquc,wjcrceypbrtomopbdts bssost od olcdtofyodh furtjcr odtcrvocw mbdlolbtcs.Wurpnsovc sbkp`odh bols od olcdtofyodh b ernbl spcmtruk nf rcspndlcdts,cdsurodh ercbltj od bhc,hcdlcr bdl cxpcrocdmcrc`cvbdt tn tjc rcscbrmj tnpom (Kbrsjb`` bdl Unsskbd 2???).Dndctjc`css,snkc pbrtomopbdts kby jbvc eccd knrc nr `csslovu`hodh tjbd ntjcrs,bdl tjus rcscbrmjcrs wcdt tn hrcbt`cdhtjs tn vb`olbtc fodlodhs tjrnuhj mrnss rcfcrcdmodh bdl tro-bdhu`btond nf odtcrvocw rcsu`ts. Odtcrvocw lbtb wbs mnlcl tjc-kbtomb``y udlcr bd odotob` sct nf tjckcs pcrtbododh tn tjc rc-scbrmj qucstonds,bdl mnlodh wbs tjcd cxpbdlcl tn mbpturctjckcs tjbt ckcrhcl frnk tjc lbtb.
\jc Kïtos bdl tjcor brtcfbmtub` vb`ucs fnr dbturc
Mndstotutond nf vb`uc tjrnuhj cxpcrocdmc
]nmob` mndstrumtonds nf dbturc,bs cxprcsscl,fnr cxbk-p`c,od bttbmjkcdt bdl scdsc nf p`bmc,brc strndh`y odf`ucdmcley tjc bmtovotocs (c.h. judtodh) tjbt brc cdbe`cl ey tjbt `bdl-smbpc‟spjysomb` bttroeutcs (]tclkbd 577=). Kbmdbhjtcd bdlSrry(2??:) usc tjc tcrk ‚tbsaspbmctn mbpturc tjos ckenlo-kcdt nf snmob` mjbrbmtcr bdl suotc nf bmtovotocs od b pjysomb``bdlsmbpc,johj`ohjtodh tjc rn`c nf snmob` tokc,jostnry bdlcxpcrocdtob` bmtovoty bs okpnrtbdt c`ckcdts nf snmon-cdvornd-kcdtb` vb`ucs. \jc tbmto`oty nf tjc `nmb` cdvorndkcdt mnk-eodcl wotj tjc `ovcl cxpcrocdmc bdl ‚kusmu`br kcknry‟ck-bdbtodh frnk `bdl-usc bmtovoty `cdl tjcksc`vcs tn tjc lcvc`-npkcdt nf pbrtomu`br kcbdodhs nf dbturc (]uttnd 577<). Kbdyodtcrvocwccs‟dbrrbtovcs ckpjbsozc jnw vb`ucs tn-wbrltjc fnrcst brc
cxprcsscl 
tjrnuhj kbtcrob` prbmtomcs. Ndcrcspndlcdt mbpturcl tjos scdtokcdt wjcd sjc stbtcl tjbt pcn-p`c wjn `ovcl nfftjc `bdl wcrc tjc ecst stcwbrls,eut ckpjb-sozcl tjbt‐_nu‟ljbvctn `ovcod tjc eusj tn cxpcrocdmc wjbtot‟shnt nut tjcrc.Mu`turb` odtcrbmtond wotj tjc `bdl p`bys bdokpnrtbdt rn`c od dbturcvb`ucs,wotj 37/66 odtcrvocws kbaodhrcfcrcdmc tn Kïtos mu`turb` rc`btondsjops wotj tjc `bdl.\rblo-tondb` fnnl jbrvcst,rcmrcbtond bdl mu`turb`/sporotub` bmtovotocswcrcnvcrwjc`kodh`y mnkknd bkndhst odtcrvocw pbrtomo-pbdts. ]tbtckcdts rcfcrrodh tn jnwbmtovotocs nd tjc `bdl jbvccdmnurbhcl johj `cvc`s nf vb`uc bdl rcspcmt fnr dbturc wcrcmnkknd (rcfcrcdmcl od =8/66 odtcrvocws)9
Frnk echoddodh nf ky tokc O hrcw up od tjc n`l trb-lotondb` wbynf `ovodh od nur snmocty wjomjos sue-sostcdmc judtodh bdl `ovodh nff tjc `bdl. Sto`ozc tjc fnrcst od cvcry okbhodbe`c wby. O uscl tn hn nut nd
 Inuecrt bdl Lbvolsnd

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