LECTURE NOTES – PHYSICS
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It does not depend upon the distance that is actually covered but on thedisplacement of the point from infinity
It is a scalar quantity.
The unit is volt.
Potential Difference Between Two Points (V)
The potential difference between two points is the work done in moving a unit positivecharge from one point to the other.If the potential at point A is V
and the potential at point B is V
then the potentialdifference, V, between the A and B is given byV = V
If a charge, q, is moved through a potential difference, V, we can writeV =
The units of V are JC
A potential difference of 1 volt between two points means that in carrying a charge of +1coulomb from one point to the other 1 joule of work would be done.
It is a sustained flow of charge
requiringa closed circuita power sourceIt is measured as the rate of flow of charge:I = Q/tUnit: Ampere.1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb per second.
A current in a metal is due to the movement of electrons. In a conducting solution,the current is due to the movement of ions.
Current is measured using an ammeter.
An ammeter measures the rate of flow of charge.
When current is due to the flow of electrons there is an associated mass transfer.However mass transfer if any in electron conduction is insignificant.
Conventional current and electron flow
Conventional Current assumes that current flows out of the positive terminal, through thecircuit and into the negative terminal of the source. This was the convention chosenduring the discovery of electricity.Electron Flow is what actually happens and electrons flow out of the negative terminal,through the circuit and into the positive terminal of the source