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Electricity(EDUCATIONPOINT.CO.CC)

Electricity(EDUCATIONPOINT.CO.CC)

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Published by rahu12362
Chapterwise revision notes for CBSE - X
Chapterwise revision notes for CBSE - X

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Published by: rahu12362 on Aug 15, 2009
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05/11/2014

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LECTURE NOTES – PHYSICS
 STEPS 
 
A
TCY
Program
 
 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 
 
 STEPS 
____________________________________________________________
 
Get free chapterwise tests for Class X
th
onwww.tcyonline.com
1
 
BASICS OF ELECTRICITY ANDIT’S HEATING EFFECTS
Nature of Charge
1. There are two kinds of charge, positive and negative
 
2. Like charges repel, unlike charges attract3. Positive charge comes from having more protons than electrons; negative chargecomes from having more electrons than protons4. Charge is quantized, meaning that charge comes in integer multiples of theelementary charge
e (Q = n
×
e) e = 1.6
×
10
 –19
C
 5. Charge is conserved
Law of conservation of charge
 Total electric charge in the Universe is a constant quantity, and if additional chargeappears in some region, it is only at the expense of the charge deficit in some otherregions.
Coulomb’s Law
“The magnitude of the electric force t
 
hat a particle exerts on another particle is directlyproportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of thedistance between them. The direction of the force is along the line joining the particles. "F
 
221
RQ.Q
where Q
1
and Q
2
are the magnitude of the charges and R the separationbetween them.
Conductors and Insulators
A conductor is a material that permits the motion of electric charge through its volume.Examples of conductors are copper, aluminium and iron. An electric charge placed on theend of a conductor will spread out over the entire conductor until an equilibriumdistribution is established. Conductors have low resistivity.Electric charge placed on an insulator stays in place: an insulator (like glass, rubber andMylar) does not permit the motion of electric charge in under normal physical conditions. They have very high resistivity.
The Potential at a Point
Electric potential is a measure of the potential energy per unit charge. The potential of a point is the work done in carrying unit positive charge from infinity tothat point.
The potential of a point in an electric field is a characteristic constant of that point.
It does not depend on how much charge is carried.
 
LECTURE NOTES – PHYSICS
 STEPS 
 
A
TCY
Program
 
 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 
 
 STEPS 
____________________________________________________________
 
Get free chapterwise tests for Class X
th
onwww.tcyonline.com
2
It does not depend upon the distance that is actually covered but on thedisplacement of the point from infinity
It is a scalar quantity.
The unit is volt.
Potential Difference Between Two Points (V)
 The potential difference between two points is the work done in moving a unit positivecharge from one point to the other.If the potential at point A is V
A
and the potential at point B is V
B
then the potentialdifference, V, between the A and B is given byV = V
B
– V
A
 If a charge, q, is moved through a potential difference, V, we can writeV =
W
  The units of V are JC
-1
or Volt.
1 Volt:
A potential difference of 1 volt between two points means that in carrying a charge of +1coulomb from one point to the other 1 joule of work would be done.
Electric Current:
It is a sustained flow of charge
 
requiringa closed circuita power sourceIt is measured as the rate of flow of charge:I = Q/tUnit: Ampere.1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb per second.
A current in a metal is due to the movement of electrons. In a conducting solution,the current is due to the movement of ions.
Current is measured using an ammeter.
An ammeter measures the rate of flow of charge.
Note: 
 
When current is due to the flow of electrons there is an associated mass transfer.However mass transfer if any in electron conduction is insignificant.
Conventional current and electron flow
Conventional Current assumes that current flows out of the positive terminal, through thecircuit and into the negative terminal of the source. This was the convention chosenduring the discovery of electricity.Electron Flow is what actually happens and electrons flow out of the negative terminal,through the circuit and into the positive terminal of the source
 
LECTURE NOTES – PHYSICS
 STEPS 
 
A
TCY
Program
 
 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 
 
 STEPS 
____________________________________________________________
 
Get free chapterwise tests for Class X
th
onwww.tcyonline.com
3
Resistance
 The resistance of any object is measured as the potential difference required per unitcurrent in that object. Hence the resistance R is quantified as:R =
IV
  where V is the applied potential difference and I the current in the object. It can be saidthat resistance is the property of an object to resist flow of current through it.George Ohm investigated the resistance of metals.He first tried to find how the resistance of a piece of metal depends on its dimensions. Hefound that resistance depends on(i) the length of the piece of metal,
 (ii) the cross-sectional area of the piece of metal, A(iii) the type of metal.His results showed thatR
 
 and R
/AR =
ρ
 
/A (
ρ
is the resistivity of material)
Resistance and Temperature
Resistance occurs because conduct
 
ing electrons repeatedly collide with the comparativelymassive vibrating atoms losing their kinetic energy. The vibrating atoms having gainedthis kinetic energy now vibrate more. The resulting increase in the average vibrationalkinetic energy is rise in temperature.
Ohm’s law
Physical conditions remaining constant, the current in a conductor is directly proportionalto the potential difference across the ends of the conductor.V
IV = R
×
I where R is a constant
R =
IV
  where R is a constant for a particular conductor under given physical conditions. This constant is called the resistance of the wire.[
Ohm’s law does not state V=IR; It states that in the expression V=IR, the R is a constant 
]Unit : ohm (
) = Volt/Ampere.
1 ohm
1 ohm is the resistance of that wire in which 1 volt of p.d. is required in order to maintaina current of 1 Ampere.
V
I

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