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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

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Published by: Lorebell on Aug 15, 2009
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05/11/2014

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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes is a disease in which the body doesn't produce or properly use insulin.Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. Insulin isneeded to turn sugar and other food into energy. When you have diabetes, your bodyeither doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use its own insulin as well as it should, or both. This causes sugars to build up too high in your blood.Diabetes mellitus is defined as fasting blood glucose of 126 milligrams pedeciliter (mg/dL) or more since normal blood glucose levels are about 90mg/100ml,equivalent to 5mM (mmol/l).
Incidence and Prevalence Rate
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 180 millionpeople worldwide have diabetes. This number is likely to more than double by2030.
In 2005, an estimated 1.1 million people died from diabetes.
Almost 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low and middle-income countries.
Almost half of diabetes deaths occur in people under the age of 70 years; 55% of diabetes deaths are in women.
Types
Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent or childhood-onset) ischaracterized by a lack of insulin production. Without daily administration of insulin, Type 1 diabetes is rapidly fatal.
Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) resultsfrom the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90% of people with diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess bodyweight and physical inactivity.
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycaemia which is first recognized duringpregnancy.
“Pre-diabetes” is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normalbut not yet diabetic. People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developingtype 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. This condition are as follows:
Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and Impaired Fasting Glycaemia (IFG)are intermediate conditions in the transition between normality anddiabetes. People with IGT or IFG are at high risk of progressing to type 2diabetes, although this is not inevitable.
Signs and Symptoms
Cardinal Signs : 3 P’s1.Polyuria frequent urination2.Polydipsia – displays of excessive thirst3.Polyphagia – excessive hunger or eating
 
Weight loss
Blurred Vision
Slow wound healing
Infections: pyorrhea (periodontal infections), urinary tract infection/, vasculitis,cellulites, furuncle, carbuncles, vaginal infections
Weakness and paresthesia
Signs of inadequate circulation of the feet
Signs of accelerated atherosclerosis (renal, cerebral, cardiac, peripheral)
Type 1- Symptoms include excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst(polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes and fatigue. Thesesymptoms may occur suddenly.
Type 2 symptoms
Symptoms may be similar to those of Type 1 diabetes, but are often lessmarked. As a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years after onset, once complications have already arisen.
Until recently, this type of diabetes was seen only in adults but it is nowalso occurring in obese children.
Gestational Diabetes
Symptoms of gestational diabetes are similar to Type 2 diabetes.Gestational diabetes is most often diagnosed through prenatal screening,rather than reported symptoms.
Laboratory Exam
Blood GlucoseBlood sugar tests measure how well your body processes sugar (glucose). Someblood sugar tests are used to diagnose pre-diabetes or diabetes. Others determine howwell you're managing your diabetes.
a blood glucose test measures the amount of a type of sugar calledglucose in your blood..
Glucose
comes from CHO foods; it is the main source of energy usedby the body.
Insulin
is a hormone that helps your body’s cells uses the glucose.Insulin is produced in the pancreas and released into the blood whenthe amount of glucose in the blood.
 
DIAGNOSTIC TEST:
Glaciated Hemoglobin Test
Test used for diagnosing diabetes, it gauges how well you are managingdiabetes.
the test reflects your average blood sugar level for the past 2-3 months
test shows the result percentage of your hemoglobin
normal range for people without diabetes is 4-6 percent
level higher than 7 percent indicate the need for a change in your diabetestreatment planOral glucose tolerance test
Oral glucose tolerance test measures your body's response to sugar.
First your fasting blood sugar level is measured.
If your blood sugar level rises more than expected to 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or more you may have diabetes.
A normal blood sugar level after an oral glucose tolerance test is lower than 140mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L).
If your blood sugar level is 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L) after an oralglucose tolerance test, you may have prediabetes.
A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher two hours after youdrink the sugary solution may indicate diabetes.Random blood sugar test
Measures your blood sugar at any point in time, not necessarily a certain amountof time after a meal, snack or beverage.
A normal random blood sugar level hasn't been clearly defined.
Even if you've recently eaten and your blood sugar level is at its peak, your random blood sugar level shouldn't be higher than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L).Post Blood glucose Level
post load or postprandial glucose level can be drawn to diagnosed DM

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