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27410693 Stylistic Devices

27410693 Stylistic Devices

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Published by: Victoria Borodin on Nov 23, 2013
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 is a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this device lies in the repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly at the beginning of successive words: "The  possessive instinct never stands still. Through florescence and feud, frosts and fires it follows the laws of progression." (Galsworthy) Alliteration, lie most phonetic e!pressive means, does not  bear any le!ical or other meaning unless we agree that a sound meaning e!ists as such. ut even so we may not be able to specify clearly the character of this meaning, and the term will merely suggest that a certain amount of information is contained in the repetition of sounds, as is the case with the repetition of le!ical units. #owever, certain sounds, if repeated, may produce an effect that can be specified. Therefore alliteration is generally regarded as a musical accompaniment of the author$s idea, supporting it with some vague emotional atmosphere which each reader interprets for himself. Thus the repetition of the sound %d& in the lines 'uoted from oe$s poem "The aven" prompts the feeling of an!iety, fear, horror, anguish or all these feelings simultaneously. Alliteration in the *nglish language is deeply rooted in the traditions of *nglish follore. The laws of phonetic arrangement in Anglo+a!on poetry differed greatly from those of present+day *nglish poetry. %n -ld *nglish poetry alliteration was one of the basic  principles of verse and considered, along with rhythm, to be its main characteristic. *ach stressed meaningful word in a line had to begin with the same sound or combination of sounds. The traditions of follore are e!ceptionally stable and alliteration as a structural device of -ld *nglish poems and songs has shown remarable continuity. %t is fre'uently used as a well+tested means not only in verse but in emotive prose, in newspaper headlines, in the titles of boos, in  proverbs+and sayings, as, for e!ample, in the following: Tit for tat blind as a bat, betwi!t and  between %t is nec or nothing to rob eter to pay aul
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 %n order to characteri/e a thing or phenomenon from a specific point of view, it may be necessary not to find points of resemblance or associa+tion between it and some other thing or phenomenon, but to find points of sharp contrast, that is, to set one against the other, for e!ample: "A saint abroad, and a devil at home." (unyan) "etter to reign in hell than serve in heaven." (0ilton) A line of demarcation must be drawn between logical opposition and stylistic opposition. Any opposition will be based on the contrasting features of two ob1ects. These contrasting features are represented in pairs of words which we call antonyms, provided that all the properties of the two ob1ects in 'uestion may be set one against another, as $saint$ 2$devil$, $reign$2$serve$, $hell$2$heaven$. 0any word+combinations are built up by means of contrasting  pairs, as up and down, inside and out, from top to bottom and the lie. tylistic opposition, which is given a special name, the term antithesis, is of a different linguistic nature: it is based on relative opposition which arises out of the conte!t through the e!pansion of the literary contrasting pairs, as in: "3outh is lovely, age is lonely, 3outh is fiery, age is frosty" (4ongfellow) #ere the ob1ectively contrasted pair is $youth$ and $age$. $4ovely$and lonely$ cannot  be regarded as ob1ectively opposite concepts, but being drawn into the scheme contrasting $youth$ and $age$, they display certain features which may be counted as antonymical. This is strength+ ened also by the ne!t line where not only $youth$ and $age$ but also $fiery$ and $frosty$ are ob1ective antonyms. %t is not only the semantic aspect which e!plains the linguistic nature of antithesis, the structural pattern also plays animportant role. Antithesis is generally moulded in parallel construction. The antagonistic features of the two ob1ects or phenomena are more easily  perceived when they stand out in similar structures. Antithesis has the following basic functions: rhythm+forming (because of the parallel arrangement on which it is founded) copulative
dissevering comparative. These functions often go together and inter+mingle in their own  peculiar manner. ut as a rule antithesis displays one of the functions more clearly than the others. This particular function will then be the leading one in the given utterance.
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Archaic Words.
 The word+stoc of a language is in an increasing state of change. 5ords change their meaning and sometimes drop out of the language altogether. 6ew words spring, up and replace the old ones. ome words stay in the language a very long time and do not lose their faculty of gaining new meanings and becoming richer and richer polysemantically. -ther words live but a short time and are lie bubbles on the surface of water 2 they disappear leaving no trace of their e!istence. %n registering these processes the role of dictionaries can hardly be over+estimated. 7ictionaries serve to retain this or that word in a language either as a relic of ancient times, where it lived and circulated, or as a still living unit of the system, though it may have lost some of its meanings. They may also preserve certain nonce+creations which were never intended for general use. , %n every period in the development of a literary language one can find words which will show more or less apparent changes in their meaning or usage, from full vigour, through a moribund state, to death, i. e. complete disappearance of the unit from the language. 5e shall distinguish three stages in the aging process of words: The beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarely used. uch words are called obsolescent, i.e. they are in the stage of gradually passing out of general use. To this category first of all belong morphological forms belonging to the earlier stages in the development of the language. %n the *nglish language these are the pronouns thou and its forms thee, thy and thine, the corresponding verbal ending +est and the verb+forms art, wilt (thou maest, thou wilt), the ending +(e)th instead of +(e)s (he maeth) and the pronoun ye. To the category of obsolescent words belong many 8rench borrowings which have been ept in the literary language as a means of preserving the spirit of earlier periods, e. g.$a pallet (9a straw mattress) a palfrey (9a small horse) garniture (furniture) to pmplume (99to adorn with feathers or plumes).The second group of archaic words are those that have already gone completely out of use but are still recogni/ed by the *nglish+speaing community: e. g. methins (9it seems to me) nay (99no). These words are called obsolete.The third group, which may be called archaic proper, are words which are no longer recogni/able in modern *nglish, words that were in use in -ld *nglish and which have either dropped out of the language entirely or have changed in their appearance so much that they have become unrecogni/able, e. g. troth (9faith) a losel (99a worthless, la/y fellow).%t will  be noted that on the diagram (p. ;<) the small circles denoting archaic and poetic words overlap and both e!tend beyond the large circle "special literary vocabulary". This indicates that some of the words in these layers do not belong to the present+day *nglish vocabulary.The border lines  between the groups are not distinct.+ %n fact they interpenetrate. %t is specially diffioult to distinguish between obsolete and obsolescent words. ut the difference is important when we come to deal with the stylistic aspect of an utterance in which the given word serves a certain stylistic purpose. -bsolete and obsolescent words have separate functions, as we shall point oirt later.There is still another class of words which is erroneously classed as archaic, vi/. historical words. y+gone periods in the life of any society are mared by historical events, and by institutions, customs, material ob1ects, etc. which are no longer in use, for e!ample: +Thane, yeoman, .goblet, baldric, mace. 5ords of this typeriever disappear from the language. They are historical terms and remain as terms referring to definite stages in the development of society and cannot therefore be dispensed with,, though the things and phenomena to which they refer have long passed into oblivion. This, the main function ofarchaisms,,finds different interpretation in+ different novels .by different writers. ome writers overdo things inthisrespect, theresult  being that thereader finds all inds of obstacles in his way. -thers under+estimate the necessity

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