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Geometry (Belyaev)

Geometry (Belyaev)

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Published by swarnadip
a geometry book consisting of sections on classical,euclidean,hyperbolic and projective geometry
a geometry book consisting of sections on classical,euclidean,hyperbolic and projective geometry

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Published by: swarnadip on Aug 16, 2009
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Fundamentals of Geometry
Oleg A. Belyaevbelyaev@polly.phys.msu.ruFebruary 28, 2007
 
Contents
I Classical Geometry 1
1 Absolute (Neutral) Geometry 3
1.1 Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Hilberts Axioms of Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Consequences of Incidence Axioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2 Betweenness and Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Hilberts Axioms of Betweenness and Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Basic Properties of Betweenness Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Betweenness Properties for
n
Collinear Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Every Open Interval Contains Infinitely Many Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Further Properties of Open Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Open Sets and Fundamental Topological Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Basic Properties of Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Linear Ordering on Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Ordering on Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Complementary Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Point Sets on Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Basic Properties of Half-Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Point Sets on Half-Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Complementary Half-Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Basic Properties of Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Definition and Basic Properties of Generalized Betweenness Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Further Properties of Generalized Betweenness Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Generalized Betweenness Relation for
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Geometric Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Some Properties of Generalized Open Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Basic Properties of Generalized Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Linear Ordering on Generalized Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Linear Ordering on Sets With Generalized Betweenness Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59Complementary Generalized Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61Sets of Geometric Objects on Generalized Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61Betweenness Relation for Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Betweenness Relation For
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Rays With Common Initial Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Basic Properties of Angular Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Line Ordering on Angular Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Line Ordering on Pencils of Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Complementary Angular Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Sets of (Traditional) Rays on Angular Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Paths and Polygons: Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Simplicity and Related Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Some Properties of Triangles and Quadrilaterals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73Basic Properties of Trapezoids and Parallelograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Basic Properties of Half-Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Point Sets in Half-Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81Complementary Half-Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82Basic Properties of Dihedral Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Betweenness Relation for Half-Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98Betweenness Relation for
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Half-Planes with Common Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102Basic Properties of Dihedral Angular Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104Linear Ordering on Dihedral Angular Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105Line Ordering on Pencils of Half-Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106Complementary Dihedral Angular Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107i

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