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Flash Point and Chemical Composition of Aviation Kerosene

Flash Point and Chemical Composition of Aviation Kerosene

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Published by CTSoldier
Flash Point and Chemical Composition
of Aviation Kerosene (Jet A)
Flash Point and Chemical Composition
of Aviation Kerosene (Jet A)

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Published by: CTSoldier on Nov 24, 2013
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09/25/2014

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Flash Point and Chemical Compositionof Aviation Kerosene (Jet A)
J.E. Shepherd, C.D. Nuyt, and J.J. LeeGraduate Aeronautical LaboratoriesCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadena, CA 91125
in collaboration with 
ARCO Products CompanyCarson, CA 90745
and 
J.E. WoodrowCenter for Environmental Sciences and EngineeringUniversity of NevadaReno, NV 89557-0187April 2, 2000
 Revised
: May 26, 2000Explosion Dynamics Laboratory Report FM99-4
Prepared for and supported by the National Transportation Safety Board Under Order NTSB12-98-CB-0415 
 
Abstract
The relationship between chemical composition, flash point, and ignition energy was ex-amined for eight samples of aviation kerosene (Jet A) with flash points between 29
C(84
F) and 74
C (165
F). We report the results of liquid characterization by two dif-ferent laboratories. We use the results of headspace gas chromatography carried outby Woodrow and Seiber to characterize the vapor composition at liquid mass loadingfractions of 3 and 400 kg/m
3
. The composition data were analyzed to obtain analyticalrepresentations of vapor pressure and average molar mass as a function of temperature foreach flash point fuel. The relationship between composition and flash point is examinedby using two prediction methods. The first method is based on the notion of a criticalvalue of fuel-air mass ratio at the flammability limit. The second method is based onLe Chatelier’s rule for flammability limits. Both methods show a reasonable correlationbetween measured and predicted flash point. The relationship between flash point andignition temperature threshold at a fixed spark ignition energy was examined for fourfuels. A linear correlation was obtained for an ignition energy of 0.3 J. The effect of fuelweathering was examined by determining the flashpoints of seven fuel samples obtainedfrom flight tests. The flash point increased about 8
C for fuel that had been exposed to5 take-off, cruise, and landing cycles.
 
CONTENTS 
 i
Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Outline of This Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Fuels and Characterization 2
2.1 Fuel Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2 Liquid Fuel Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2.1 ARCO Liquid Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2.2 UNR Liquid Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.3 Flash Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.4 Vapor Gas Chromatography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3 Data Analysis 10
3.1 Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103.2 Vapor Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.3 Fuel Vapor Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4 Flash Point Prediction 19
4.1 Flash Point Prediction with Le Chatelier’s Flammability Rule . . . . . . 194.2 Flash Point Prediction with Fuel-Air Mass Ratio Rule . . . . . . . . . . . 214.3 Effect of Mass Loading and Altitude on Predicted Flash Point . . . . . . 24
5 Ignition Energy 256 Fuel Weathering 257 Summary and Conclusions 29

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