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Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology

Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology

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A pathophysiology starting from atherosclerosis to Myocardial ischemia, progressed to myocardial infarction that leads to heart failure.
A pathophysiology starting from atherosclerosis to Myocardial ischemia, progressed to myocardial infarction that leads to heart failure.

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Published by: Dann Dale Lloyd Laurente on Nov 24, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Etiologic Factors
Predisposing Factors
Factors Present Justifications
Increasing age Heredity Gender  Age influences both the risk and the severity of CHD. Symptomatic CHD appears predominantly in people older than 40 years of age, and 4 of 5 people who die of CHD are age 65 years and older.
Our patient’s age is 72 years
old so he is consider being at risk to have severe CHD.
Children whose parents had heart disease are at higher risk of CHD. Coronary artery disease is the number one killer of both men and women. Men are at higher risk for heart attacks at younger ages, the risk for women increases significantly at menopause.
Our patient is a male.
Precipitating Factors
Factors Present Justification
Hypertension Elevated serum cholesterol level Cigarette smoking Obesity Diabetes High blood pressure increases the workload of the heart by increasing afterload, enlarging and weakening the left ventricle over time. The risk of CHD increases as blood cholesterol levels increase. Cholesterol circulates in the blood in combination with triglycerides and protein-bounded phospholipids called lipoprotein. Both active smoking ang passive smoking have been strongly implicated as a risk factor in the development of CHD. Tar contains hydrocarbons and other carcinogenic substances. Nicotine increases the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which results in peripheral vasoconstriction, elevated blood pressure and heart rate, greater oxygen consumption, and increased likelihood of dysrhythmias. Carbon monoxide reduces the amount of blood available to the intima of the vessel wall and increases the permeability of the endothelium. Obesity places an extra burden on the heart, requiring the muscle to work harder to pump enough blood to support added tissue mass. Fasting blood glucose of more
 Physical Inactivity Homocysteine level than 126 mg/dl or a routine blood glucose level of 180 mg/dl and glucosuria signal the presence of diabetes and represents an increased risk for CHD. Clients with diabetes have a two- to four-fold higher prevalence, incidence, and mortality from all forms of CHD. There is an inversely relationship between exercise and the risk of CHD. Those who exercise reduce the risk of CHD because they have higher HDL levels, lower LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood glucose levels, greater insulin sensitivity, lower blood pressure, and lower BMI. Researchers have reported that elevated levels of plasma homocysteine ( an amino acid produced by the body) are associated with an increase risk of CHD

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