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Dietary Reference Intakes Macro Nutrients

Dietary Reference Intakes Macro Nutrients

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Macronutrients
 
Nutrient Function Life StageGroupRDA/AI*g/dAMDR
 
Selected FoodSourcesAdverse effects of excessiveconsumption
Carbohydrate—Total digestibleRDA based on itsrole as the primaryenergy source forthe brain; AMDRbased on its role asa source ofkilocalories tomaintain bodyweight
Infants0
6 mo7
12 moChildren1
3 y4
8 yMales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yFemales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yPregnancy
18 y19-30y31-50 yLactation
18 y19-30y31
50 y60*95*
130130130130130130130130130130130130130130175175210210210
 ND
b
ND45-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-6545-65Starch and sugar arethe major types ofcarbohydrates.Grains andvegetables (corn,pasta, rice, potatoes,breads) are sourcesof starch. Naturalsugars are found infruits and juices.Sources of addedsugars are softdrinks, candy, fruitdrinks, and desserts.
 
While no defined intake level atwhich potential adverse effectsof total digestible carbohydratewas identified, the upper endof the adequate macronutrientdistribution range (AMDR) wasbased on decreasing risk ofchronic disease and providingadequate intake of othernutrients. It is suggested thatthe maximal intake of addedsugars be limited to providingno more than 25 percent ofenergy.Total Fiber Improveslaxation, reducesrisk of coronaryheart disease,assists inmaintainingnormal bloodglucose levels..Infants0
6 mo7
12 moChildren1
3 y4
8 yMales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yFemales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yPregnancy
18 y19-30y31-50 yLactation
18 y19-30y31
50 yNDND19*25*31*38*38*38*30*30*26*26*25*25*21*21*28*28*28*29*29*29*Includes dietary fibernaturally present ingrains (such asfound in oats, wheat,or unmilled rice) andfunctional fibersynthesized orisolated from plantsor animals andshown to be ofbenefit to healthDietary fiber can have variablecompositions and therefore it isdifficult to link a specific sourceof fiber with a particularadverse effect, especiallywhen phytate is also present inthe natural fiber source. It isconcluded that as part of anoverall healthy diet, a highintake of dietary fiber will notproduce deleterious effects inhealthy individuals. Whileoccasional adversegastrointestinal symptoms areobserved when consumingsome isolated or syntheticfibers, serious chronic adverseeffects have not beenobserved. Due to the bulkynature of fibers, excessconsumption is likely to be self-limiting. Therefore, a UL wasnot set for individual functionalfibers.
NOTE:
The table is adapted from the DRI reports, seewww.nap.edu. It represents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in
bold type
, AdequateIntakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needsof almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groupsis believed to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individualscovered by this intake.
a
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
a
is the range of intake for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronicdisease while providing intakes of essential nutrients. If an individual consumes in excess of the AMDR, there is a potential of increasing the risk of chronicdiseases and/or insufficient intakes of essential nutrients.
b
ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source ofintake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.
SOURCE
:
Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate. Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acid 
s
(2002/2005).
This report may beaccessed via www.nap.edu
 
Dietary Reference Intakes: Macronutrients
 
Nutrient Function Life StageGroupRDA/AI*g/dAMDR
a
Selected FoodSourcesAdverse effects of excessiveconsumption
Total Fat Energy sourceand when foundin foods, is asource of
-6 and
-3polyunsaturatedfatty acids. Itspresence in thediet increasesabsorption of fatsoluble vitaminsand precursorssuch as vitamin Aand pro-vitamin Acarotenoids.Infants0
6 mo7
12 moChildren1
3 y4
8 yMales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yFemales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yPregnancy
18 y19-30y31-50 yLactation
18 y19-30y31
50 y31*30*30-4025-3525-3525-3520-3520-3520-3520-3525-3525-3520-3520-3520-3520-3520-3520-3520-3520-3520-3520-35Butter, margarine,vegetable oils, wholemilk, visible fat onmeat and poultryproducts, invisible fatin fish, shellfish,some plant productssuch as seeds andnuts, and bakeryproducts.While no defined intake level atwhich potential adverse effectsof total fat was identified,the upper end of AMDR isbased on decreasing risk ofchronic disease and providingadequate intake of othernutrients. The lower end of theAMDR is based on concernsrelated to the increase inplasma triacylglycerolconcentrations and decreasedHDL cheolesterolconcentrations seen with verylow fat (and thus highcarbohydrate) diets.
-6polyunsaturatedfatty acids(linoleic acid)Essentialcomponent ofstructuralmembrane lipids,involved with cellsignaling, andprecursor ofeicosanoids.Required fornormal skinfunction.Infants0
6 mo7
12 moChildren1
3 y4
8 yMales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yFemales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yPregnancy
18 y19-30y31-50 yLactation
18 y19-30y31
50 y4.4*4.6*7*10*12*16*17*17*14*14*10*11*12*12*11*11*13*13*13*13*13*13*ND
b
ND5-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-105-10Nuts, seeds, andvegetable oils suchas soybean,safflower, and cornoil.While no defined intake level atwhich potential adverse effectsof
-6 polyunsaturated fattyacids was identified, the upperend of the AMDR is based thelack of evidence thatdemonstrates long-term safetyand human in vitro studieswhich show increased free-radical formation and lipidperoxidation with higheramounts of n-6 fatty acids.Lipid peroxidation is thought tobe a component of in thedevelopment of atheroscleroticplaques.
NOTE:
The table is adapted from the DRI reports, seewww.nap.edu. It represents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in
bold type
, AdequateIntakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs ofalmost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups isbelieved to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individualscovered by this intake.
a
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
a
is the range of intake for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronicdisease while providing intakes of essential nutrients. If an individuals consumed in excess of the AMDR, there is a potential of increasing the risk of chronicdiseases and insufficient intakes of essential nutrients.
b
ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Sourceof intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.
SOURCE
:
Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate. Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acid 
s
(2002/2005).
This report may beaccessed viawww.nap.edu
 
 
Dietary Reference Intakes: Macronutrients
 
Nutrient Function Life StageGroupRDA/AI*g/dAMDR
a
Selected FoodSourcesAdverse effects of excessiveconsumption
-3polyunsaturatedfatty acids (
α
-linolenic acid)
 
Involved withneurologicaldevelopment andgrowth. Precursorof eicosanoids.Infants0
6 mo7
12 moChildren1
3 y4
8 yMales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yFemales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yPregnancy
18 y19-30y31-50 yLactation
18 y19-30y31
50 y0.5*0.5*0.7*0.9*1.2*1.6*1.6*1.6*1.6*1.6*1.0*1.1*1.1*1.1*1.1*1.1*1.1*1.4*1.4*1.4*1.3*1.3*1.3*ND
b
ND0.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.20.6-1.2Vegetable oils suchas soybean, canola,and flax seed oil, fishoils, fatty fish, withsmaller amounts inmeats and eggs.While no defined intake level atwhich potential adverse effectsof
-3 polyunsaturated fattyacids was identified, the upperend of AMDR is based onmaintaining the appropriatebalance with n-6 fatty acidsand on the lack of evidencethat demonstrates long-termsafety, along with human invitro studies which showincreased free-radicalformation and lipidperoxidation with higheramounts of polyunsaturatedfatty acids. Lipid peroxidationis thought to be a componentof in the development ofatherosclerotic plaques.Saturated and
trans 
fatty acids,and cholesterolNo required rolefor these nutrientsother than asenergy sourceswas identified;the body cansynthesize itsneeds forsaturated fattyacids andcholesterol fromother sources.Infants0
6 mo7
12 moChildren1
3 y4
8 yMales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yFemales9
13 y14
18 y19
30 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 yPregnancy
18 y19-30y31-50 yLactation
18 y19-30y31
50 yNDNDSaturated fatty acidsare present in animalfats (meat fats andbutter fat), andcoconut and palmkernel oils.Sources ofcholesterol includeliver, eggs, andfoods that containeggs such ascheesecake andcustard pies.Sources of
trans 
 fatty acids includestick margarines andfoods containinghydrogenated orpartially-hydrogenatedvegetableshortenings.There is an incrementalincrease in plasma total andlow-density lipoproteincholesterol concentrations withincreased intake of saturatedor
trans 
fatty acids or withcholesterol at even very lowlevels in the diet. Therefore,the intakes of each should beminimized while consuming anutritionally adequate diet.
NOTE:
The table is adapted from the DRI reports, seewww.nap.edu. It represents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in
bold type
, AdequateIntakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs ofalmost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups isbelieved to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individualscovered by this intake.
a
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
a
is the range of intake for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronicdisease while providing intakes of essential nutrients. If an individuals consumed in excess of the AMDR, there is a potential of increasing the risk of chronicdiseases and insufficient intakes of essential nutrients.
b
ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Sourceof intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.
SOURCE
:
Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate. Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acid 
s
(2002/2005).
This report may beaccessed viawww.nap.edu
 

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