Health Disorder Dietary Modification Rationale or Comments
AIDS Based on specificsymptoms.See Diarrhea and COPD Anemia, folatedeficiency Recommend folic acid(folate) supplements.Increase dietary intake of dark-green, leafy vegetables.Lab reports "megaloblastic"RBCs. Folate is essential forRBC production andmaturation. Maternaldeficiency prior to conceptionis associated with fetal neuraltube defects (spina bifida). Anemia, irondeficiency (called
in child whodrinks excessiveamounts of milk rather than eatingiron-rich foods)Give iron supplementsand iron-rich diet thatincludes liver, red meats, whole grains, dark-greenleafy vegetables, andcereals.Ensure adequate intakeof vitamin C.Lab reports "hypochromic"and "microcytic" RBCs.Milk and antacids impairabsorption of ironsupplements. Vit C facilitates absorption of iron. Anemia, pernicious Administer B
. Lab reports "megaloblastic"RBCs. Anemia is caused by malabsorption of B
. Anemia, sickle cell Increase fluids to at least1½ times usualrequirement for weightand age.Folic acid (folate) may begiven.Sickled cells tend to clumptogether, causing vaso-occlusion. Increased fluidintake results in hemodilution, which impedes the clumpingprocess.Folic acid essential for normalRBC formation. Arthritis Maintain ideal body weight by limiting fat andcaloric intake.Excess weight causes stress on joints.Burns High kilocaloric andprotein intake.Give vitamin and mineralsupplements.Enteral or parenteralfeedings if PO feedingsinadequate.Calories and protein neededfor healing.Decreased level of consciousness, poor appetite,or paralytic ileus may interfere with PO intake.Calculi, renal Generous fluid intake.Dietary calcium adequateto maintain serumcalcium and preventexcessive bone loss of Calculi most often composedof calcium, which is moresoluble in acidic urine.Dilute urine less likely tosupport stone formation.
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