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ACF WASH - GFS Module 1 - Introduction - 01-2008 - En

ACF WASH - GFS Module 1 - Introduction - 01-2008 - En

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Published by: Accion Contra El Hambre on Aug 17, 2009
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05/11/2014

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 2008 UPDATE
 
 
 
1
CONTENTS
CONTENTS.........................................................................................................................1
 
I.
 
WATER........................................................................................................................2
 
I.1.
 
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................2
 
I.1.1. Why getting interested in water?
.......................................................................................2
I.2.
 
WATER REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................................3
 
I.2.1. What is the quantity of water needed per capita per day?
.............................................3
I.2.2. What are the domestic water needs?
................................................................................3
I.2.3. How much water must be available?
...................................................................................4
I.3.
 
WATER RESOURCES.........................................................................................................4
 
I.3.1. Where does water come from?
...........................................................................................4
I.4.
 
WATER QUALITY AND COMPOSITION.......................................................................6
 
I.4.1. What is the composition of water?
.....................................................................................6
I.4.2. How water gets polluted and becomes inappropriate for human consumption?
.............7
I.4.3. What are the main pollutants and their effects?
............................................................7
I.4.4. What is the fecal pollution?
................................................................................................8
I.4.5. How to fight faecal contamination?
...................................................................................9
I.4.6. Which quality drinking water must have?
........................................................................10
I.5.
 
WATER TREATMENT AND ANALYSIS.......................................................................13
 
I.5.1. How to estimate or measure the water quality?
.............................................................13
I.5.2. What to do if water is polluted?
......................................................................................17
I.5.3. When should water be treated?
.......................................................................................20
I.5.4. Which procedures to use for water treatment?
............................................................20
II.
 
WATER SUPPLY.......................................................................................................32
 
II.1.
 
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WATER SUPPLY TECHNOLOGIES?....................32
 
II.1.1.
 
Rainwater
.......................................................................................................................32
II.1.2.
 
Surface Water
..............................................................................................................33
II.1.3.
 
Groundwater
..................................................................................................................35
II.1.4.
 
Advantages and disadvantages of various technologies of water supply
................38
II.2.
 
HOW TO CHOOSE THE MOST SUITABLE WATER RESOURCE?........................39
 
II.3.
 
WHAT CAN BE THE EFFECT OF DEFORESTATION ON GROUNDWATER RESOURCES?.................................................................................................................................42
 
 
 
2
I. WATER 
I.1. INTRODUCTION
I.1.1. Why getting interested in water?
Water is vital
All life depends on water, which is the main component of living cells: from less than 40%(certain species of plants) to more than 95% (jellyfishes). The human body contains about80% of water, i.e. 4/5 of its weight. A human body of 60 kg is therefore made up of 48 kg ofwater and 12 kg only of other substances. A day without water is sufficient for the brain tobecome unable to work properly (obsessed by the lack of water) and one can die in 2 or 3days without water.
 
Water is essential in any human activity.
 People use water to carry out a large number of activities such as:
Agriculture (irrigation) and cattle breeding (animals).
Industry (cooling, dissolution, washing, dilution).
Electricity production (dams and hydropower plants).
Cooking (to prepare meals).
Cleaning (clothes, dishes, cars, floors in the home …).
To move and to transport equipment (people can use rivers as communicationmean).
Distraction and relaxing (swimming and bathing places).
Human living standard depends on water availability.
The level of comfort and the development of a population can be measured by the quantity ofwater this population consumes, per person and per day. Therefore, considering a countrywhere people consume 500 liters of water per person per day, the country where peopleconsume 1000L/p/d can be considered as wealthier. Drought is a main factor of poverty andfamine.
Dirty water is lethal
Dirty water is the cause of more than half of the known diseases, which can be divided in 4groups, according to their ways of transmission:
Water-borne diseases represent the category of illness caused by drinking watercontaminated by human or animal faeces, which contain pathogenic micro organisms.Water-borne diseases include cholera, hepatitis A, diarrhoea, typhoid…;
Water-washed diseases are illness developed in conditions where freshwater is scarceand sanitation is poor. Infections are transmitted when too little freshwater isavailable for washing hands or body. Water-washed diseases include trachoma,leprosy, tuberculosis, whooping cough, tetanus, and diphtheria;
Water-based diseases are caused by aquatic organisms that spend part of their lifecycle in the water and another part as parasites of animals. Water-based diseases

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