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Table Of Contents

1.1 Purpose and motivation
1.1.1 Complexity theory
1.1.2 Computability theory
1.1.3 Automata theory
1.1.4 This course
1.2 Mathematical preliminaries
1.3 Proof techniques
1.3.1 Direct proofs
1.3.2 Constructive proofs
1.3.3 Nonconstructive proofs
1.3.4 Proofs by contradiction
1.3.5 The pigeon hole principle
1.3.6 Proofs by induction
1.3.7 More examples of proofs
2.1 An example: Controling a toll gate
2.2 Deterministic finite automata
2.2.1 A first example of a finite automaton
2.2.2 A second example of a finite automaton
2.2.3 A third example of a finite automaton
2.3 Regular operations
2.4 Nondeterministic finite automata
2.4.1 A first example
2.4.2 A second example
2.4.3 A third example
2.4.4 Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton
2.5 Equivalence of DFAs and NFAs
2.5.1 An example
2.6 Closure under the regular operations
2.7 Regular expressions
2.8.1 Every regular expression describes a regular lan-
2.8.2 Converting a DFA to a regular expression
2.9 The pumping lemma and nonregular lan-
2.9.1 Applications of the pumping lemma
2.10 Higman’s Theorem
2.10.1 Dickson’s Theorem
2.10.2 Proof of Higman’s Theorem
Context-Free Languages
3.1 Context-free grammars
3.2 Examples of context-free grammars
3.2.1 Properly nested parentheses
3.2.2 A context-free grammar for a nonregular lan-
3.2.4 A context-free grammar that verifies addition
3.3 Regular languages are context-free
3.3.1 An example
3.4 Chomsky normal form
3.4.1 An example
3.5 Pushdown automata
3.6 Examples of pushdown automata
3.6.1 Properly nested parentheses
3.6.2 Strings of the form 0n
3.6.3 Strings with b in the middle
3.8 The pumping lemma for context-free lan-
3.8.1 Proof of the pumping lemma
3.8.2 Applications of the pumping lemma
4.1 Definition of a Turing machine
4.2 Examples of Turing machines
4.2.1 Accepting palindromes using one tape
4.2.2 Accepting palindromes using two tapes
4.3 Multi-tape Turing machines
4.4 The Church-Turing Thesis
5.1 Decidability
5.1.1 The language ADFA
5.1.5 The Halting Problem
5.2 Countable sets
5.2.1 The Halting Problem revisited
5.3 Rice’s Theorem
5.3.1 Proof of Rice’s Theorem
5.4 Enumerability
5.4.1 Hilbert’s problem
5.4.2 The language ATM
5.5 Where does the term “enumerable” come
5.6 Most languages are not enumerable
5.6.1 The set of enumerable languages is countable
5.6.2 The set of all languages is not countable
5.6.3 There are languages that are not enumerable
5.8.1 EQTM is not enumerable
5.8.2 EQTM is not enumerable
6.1 The running time of algorithms
6.2 The complexity class P
6.2.1 Some examples
6.3 The complexity class NP
6.3.1 P is contained in NP
6.3.2 Deciding NP-languages in exponential time
6.3.3 Summary
6.4 Non-deterministic algorithms
6.5 NP-complete languages
6.5.1 Two examples of reductions
6.5.2 Definition of NP-completeness
6.5.3 An NP-complete domino game
6.5.4 Examples of NP-complete languages
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Theory of Computation

Theory of Computation

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Published by peralozac123
Theory of programming and computation.
Theory of programming and computation.

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Published by: peralozac123 on Nov 25, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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