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Indian History Since 1857

Indian History Since 1857

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Published by: mohankrishna75 on Aug 18, 2009
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 Newspaper/Journal = Founder/Editor 1. Bengal Gazette(1780) (India’s first newspaper) = J.K.Hikki2. Kesari = B.G.Tilak 3. Maharatta = B.G.Tilak 4. Sudharak = G.K.Gokhale5. Amrita Bazar Patrika = Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh6. Vande Mataram = Aurobindo Ghosh7. Native Opinion = V.N.Mandalik 8. Kavivachan Sudha = Bhartendu Harishchandra9. Rast Goftar (First newspaper in Gujarati) = Dadabhai Naoroji10. New India (Weekly) = Bipin Chandra Pal11. Statesman = Robert Knight12. Hindu = Vir Raghavacharya and G.S.Aiyar 13. Sandhya = B.B.Upadhyaya14. Vichar Lahiri = Krishnashastri Chiplunkar 15. Hindu Patriot = Girish Chandra Ghosh (later Harish Chandra Mukherji)16. Som Prakash = Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar 17. Yugantar = Bhupendranath Datta and Barinder Kumar Ghosh18. Bombay Chronicle = Firoze Shah Mehta19. Hindustan = M.M.Malviya20. Mooknayak = B.R.Ambedkar 21. Comrade = Mohammed Ali22. Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq = Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan23. Al-Hilal = Abdul Kalam Azad24. Al-Balagh = Abdul Kalam Azad25. Independent = Motilal Nehru26. Punjabi = Lala Lajpat Rai27. New India (Daily) = Annie Besant28. Commonweal = Annie Besant29. Pratap = Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi30. Essays in Indian Economics = M.G.Ranade31. Samvad Kaumudi (Bengali) = Ram Mohan Roy32. Mirat-ul-Akhbar = Ram Mohan Roy (first Persian newspaper)33. Indian Mirror = Devendra Nath Tagore34. Nav Jeevan = M.K.Gandhi35. Young India = M.K.Gandhi36. Harijan = M.K.Gandhi37. Prabudha Bharat = Swami Vivekananda38. Udbodhana = Swami Vivekananda
 
39. Indian Socialist = Shyamji Krishna Verma40. Talwar (in Berlin) = Birendra Nath Chattopadhyaya41. Free Hindustan (in Vancouver) = Tarak Nath Das42. Hindustan Times = K.M.Pannikar 43. Kranti = Mirajkar, Joglekar, Ghate
While the British ruled India, the head of the British administration in India was theGovernor General and Viceroy of India. This office was created in 1773, where the officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other British East IndiaCompany officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in1833 and the official became known as the Governor-General of India. And in 1858, Indiacame under the direct control of the British Crown.The title "Governor General" applied to his relationship to the British Provinces of India(Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, United Provinces, etc.). But much of British India wasnot ruled directly by the government and the territory was divided into hundreds of nominally sovereign princely states or "native states" whose relationship was not with theBritish government, but directly with the monarch.To reflect the Governor General`s role as representative from the monarch to the feudalrulers of the princely states, the term Viceroy of India was applied to him. The titleremained in existence from 1858 till 1947, when India became independent in 1947. Theoffice of Governor General continued to exist until India adopted a republican constitutionin 1950. The offices of the Viceroys, included the following:Lord DalhousieLord Dalhousie was appointed Governor General of India in 1848. His eight years of ruleis considered one of the greatest periods of British rule. His policy of Annexation was alethal weapon of conquest that raised the rule of the East India Company to the height of glory. Dalhousie annexed Satara in 1848, Jhansi in 1853 and Nagpur in 1854 on theground of misgovernment. Dalhousie annexed Oudh in 1851 and Berar was taken over from the Nizam in 1853 as he had delayed his tribute to the paramount power, the British.The titular Rajaship of Tanjore was abolished in 1855. On the death of the ex-PeshwaBajirao II- 1853, his adopted son Nana was refused his pension. Dalhousie recognized theheir to the last of the Mughals on his agreeing not to use the imperial title.Dalhousie a fragile man by constitution had an amazing sweep and energy. He laid downthe main Railway lines, telegraph network and brought about many far-reaching changesin the Secretariat and the other wings of administration. He established universities atCalcutta, Madras and Bombay. The Act was passed in 1858`and it became operative soonthereafter.Lord CanningLord Canning was the Governor General of India from 1856 - 1862 and the first Viceroy
 
in India from 1 November 1858. Well-known as a reflective and industrious, person, hetried to suppress the Indian`s after they were defeated in the Mutiny of 1857. He adopted aconciliatory attitude and restored to some of the mutineers, their estates and so avoidedconfrontation with them.Lord ElginLord Elgin (1811-1863) was Governor General and Viceroy of India from 1862 to 1863.Born on 20 July 1811, Lord Elgin was educated at Eton and Christ Church at Oxford. Hewas a British colonial administrator and diplomat, best known as Governor General of theProvince of Canada and Viceroy of India. He was the son of the 7th Earl of Elgin and 11thEarl of Kincardine. His second wife was Lady Mary Lambton, daughter of the 1st Earl of Durham, the author of the groundbreaking Report on the Affairs of British North America(1839) and niece of the Colonial Secretary the 3rd Earl Grey. A contemporary and friendof his predecessors, Dalhousie and Canning, he had acquired vast experience in colonialadministration as Governor of Jamaica from 1842 to 1846 and Governor General of Canada from 1846 to 1854.He was one of the most trained Viceroy`s ever appointed by British Government in India.Indian Administration under Lord Elgin furnishes a perfect cross section made in theGovernment of India at the time when those of the new regime were rapidly supersedingthe old company methods. He peculiarly gave Anglo-Indian Administration a neworientation. His decisive action during early days of Mutiny, in placing himself and everysoldier at disposal of Canning, had greatly helped India at a very critical moment. Elgin`scareer in India was cut short by his sudden death after only twenty months of office,mostly carrying on Canning`s work. He spent the summer of 1863 at Shimla and died of heart disease at Darmashala while on tour in upper India and was buried there. The mainevent of his time was the Ambala campaign in the Northwest frontier to suppress a tribalinsurrection there.Lord John LawrenceHe was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. He soon became a magistrate and tax collector in Delhi, where he was known for his concern for the plight of the peasantry.Lord MayoLord Mayo (1822-1872) was the Viceroy and Governor General of India from 1869 to1872. Son of the Fifth Earl of Mayo, he was born on 21 February 1822, christenedRichard Southwell Bourke and graduated from Trinity College, Dublin. He had held theoffice of chief secretary for Ireland before Disraeli appointed him to succeed LordLawrence.He inherited his father as the Sixth Earl and came to India as Lord Mayo. He continuedthe policy of Noni-ntervention followed by his immediate predecessors and throughdiplomatic maneuver secured the good will and friendship of Sher Ali, Ameer of Afghanistan, who met the viceroy at Ambala in 1869.Mayo secured the Russianrecognition of the Oxus as the Northern Afghan border. Perhaps his great achievement

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