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Electricity - (eBook) - Basic in Motors

# Electricity - (eBook) - Basic in Motors

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electric motors, motors, electric
electric motors, motors, electric

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08/19/2013

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SERVO CONTROL FACTS
A HANDBOOK EXPLAINING THE BASICS OF MOTION
BALDOR ELECTRIC COMPANY
MN1205

TYPES OF MOTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3OPEN LOOP/CLOSED LOOP . . . . . 9WHAT IS A SERVO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11COMPENSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13TYPES OF CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . 15TYPES OF FEEDBACK DEVICES . 17TYPES OF ACTUATORS . . . . . . . . . . 22
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Servo Control Facts
TYPES OF MOTORS
The direct current (DC) motor is one of the first machines devised to convert electrical energy tomechanical power. Its origin can be traced to machines conceived and tested by Michael Faraday,the experimenter who formulated the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism. These conceptsbasically state that if a conductor, or wire, carrying current is placed in a magnetic field, a force willact upon it. The magnitude of thisforce is a function of strength of themagnetic field, the amount of currentpassing through the conductor andthe orientation of the magnet andconductor. The direction in whichthis force will act is dependent on thedirection of current and direction of the magnetic field.Electric motor design is based on theplacement of conductors (wires) in amagnetic field. A winding has manyconductors, or turns of wire, and thecontribution of each individual turnadds to the intensity of the interac-tion. The force developed from awinding is dependent on the currentpassing through the winding and the magnetic field strength. If more current is passed through thewinding, then more force (torque) is obtained. In effect, two magnetic fields interacting causemovement: the magnetic field from the rotor and the magnetic field from the stators attract eachother. This becomes the basis of both AC and DC motor design.
AC MOTORS
Most of the world's motor business is addressed by AC motors. AC motors are relatively constantspeed devices. The speed of an AC motor is determined by the frequency of the voltage applied(and the number of magnetic poles). There are basically two types of AC motors:
induction
and
synchronous
.
INDUCTION MOTOR.
If the induction motor is viewed as a type of transformer, it becomes
AGEC ELD
CURRENTFORCE
Fig. 1 -
CONCEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETISM
ROTORFIELDSTATORFIELDINDUCED VOLTAGEAND CURRENT
Fig. 2 -
INDUCTION MOTOR
I    N    D    U   C    E    D
VI