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Flow Measurement Basic

Flow Measurement Basic



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Published by Sri
A compact instrumentation book with some basic explanation and principles.
A compact instrumentation book with some basic explanation and principles.

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Sri on Aug 18, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The most common principals for fluid flow metering are:
Differential Pressure Flowmeters
Velocity Flowmeters
Positive Displacement Flowmeters
Mass Flowmeters
Open Channel Flowmeters
Differential Pressure Flowmeters
In a differential pressure drop device the flow is calculated by measuring the pressure drop over anobstructions inserted in the flow. The differential pressure flowmeter is based on the Bernoullis Equation,where the pressure drop and the further measured signal is a function of the square flow speed.The most common types of differential pressure flowmeters are:
Orifice Plate
With an orifice plate, the fluid flow is measured through the difference in pressure from the upstream side to thedownstream side of a partially obstructed pipe. The plate obstructing the flow offers a precisely measuredobstruction that narrows the pipe and forces the flowing fluid to constrict.The orifice plates are simple, cheap and can be delivered for almost any application in any material.TheTurnDown Ratefor orifice plates are less than 5:1. Their accuracy are poor at low flow rates. A highaccuracy depend on an orifice plate in good shape, with a sharp edge to the upstream side. Wear reduces theaccuracy.
Venturi Tube
Due to simplicity and dependability, the Venturi tube flowmeter is often used in applications where it'snecessary with higher  TurnDown Rates,or lower pressure drops, than the orifice plate can provide. In the Venturi Tube the fluid flowrate is measured by reducing the cross sectional flow area in the flow path,generating a pressure difference. After the constricted area, the fluid is passes through a pressure recovery exitsection, where up to 80% of the differential pressure generated at the constricted area, is recovered.With proper instrumentation and flow calibrating, the Venturi Tubeflowratecan be reduced to about 10% of itsfull scale range with proper accuracy. This provides aTurnDown Rate10:1.
Flow Nozzles
Flow nozzles are often used as measuring elements for air and gas flow in industrial applications.The flow nozzle is relative simple and cheap, and available for many applications in many materials.TheTurnDown Rateand accuracy can be compared with the orifice plate.
The Sonic Nozzle - Critical (Choked) Flow Nozzle
When a gas accelerate through a nozzle, the velocity increase and the pressure and the gas density decrease.The maximum velocity is achieved at the throat, the minimum area, where it breaks Mach 1 or sonic. At thispoint it's not possible to increase the flow by lowering the downstream pressure. The flow is choked.This situation is used in many control systems to maintain fixed, accurate, repeatable gas flow rates unaffectedby the downstream pressure.
Recovery of Pressure Drop in Orifices, Nozzles and Venturi Meters
After the pressure difference has been generated in the differential pressure flow meter, the fluid pass throughthe pressure recovery exit section, where the differential pressure generated at the constricted area is partlyrecovered.

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