Flow nozzles are often used as measuring elements for air and gas flow in industrial applications.The flow nozzle is relative simple and cheap, and available for many applications in many materials.TheTurnDown Rateand accuracy can be compared with the orifice plate.
The Sonic Nozzle - Critical (Choked) Flow Nozzle
When a gas accelerate through a nozzle, the velocity increase and the pressure and the gas density decrease.The maximum velocity is achieved at the throat, the minimum area, where it breaks Mach 1 or sonic. At thispoint it's not possible to increase the flow by lowering the downstream pressure. The flow is choked.This situation is used in many control systems to maintain fixed, accurate, repeatable gas flow rates unaffectedby the downstream pressure.
Recovery of Pressure Drop in Orifices, Nozzles and Venturi Meters
After the pressure difference has been generated in the differential pressure flow meter, the fluid pass throughthe pressure recovery exit section, where the differential pressure generated at the constricted area is partlyrecovered.