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Fresnel Biprism

Fresnel Biprism

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Published by: sarathkanth on Aug 18, 2009
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12/10/2012

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 Fresnel Biprism
92
12.Fresnel Biprism
 Background 
WavelengthPhaseCoherenceFresnel BiprismVirtual Source Interference
 Aim of the experiment
To measure the wavelength of Sodium Light
 Apparatus required 
 A sodium Lamp A optical bench A slit  A bi-prism An eye-piece
Theory
The Fresnel biprism is a prism which has one of its angles slightly less than tworight angles and two equal small base angles. It acts like two very thin prisms placedbase to base.When rays from a slit, S, illuminated by a monochromatic light, such as sodiumlight are made to be incident on the plane face of the biprism (PQR), the emergentrays from the two halves of the biprism appear to diverge from two coherent virtualsources, S
1
and S
2
(Fig. 1). If a screen (AB) is placed with its plane perpendicular tothe plane containing the slit and the common base of the biprism, the emergent beamsof light overlap on the screen producing alternate dark and bright fringes.Fig. 1 Diagram of Fresnel’s biprism experimentIf 
is the distance between the two virtual sources S
1
and S
2
,
D
is the distancebetween the slit and the screen, and
λ
is the wavelength of the monochromatic(a)D
 
Date :
 
 Fresnel Biprism
93radiation, then the fringe width,
x
, i.e., the distance between two consecutive dark orbright fringes is given by
 
 D x
=
…(1)To determine
, a convex lens having such a focal length that the distancebetween the slot and the focal plane of the eye-piece exceeds four times the focallength is interposed between the biprism and the eye-piece. The lens is adjusted sothat for two of its positions the real images of the two virtual sources S
1
and S
2
arefocused on the focal plane of the eye-piece. If 
1
and
2
are the distances between thereal images of S
1
and S
2
for two positions of the lens, then
21
=
…(2)
 Procedure
1. Mount the gadgets on the optical bench.2. Study all the movements on each stand.3. Ensure that all the pieces are aligned at roughly the same height4. Remove the stand with the convex lens from the optical bench.5. Bring the eyepiece close to the biprism.6. Looking through the eyepiece you will see a bright vertical patch of light. Aslight rotation of the biprism in its own plane will break up this patch intovertical equidistance fringes.7. Adjust the slit width to get the best compromise between brightness andsharpness of the fringe pattern.8. Move the eyepiece slowly away from the biprism along the optical bench to adistance of about 100 cms. Keeping the fringe pattern all the time in the fieldof view.9. Keeping eyepiece at a distance of 100 cm from the biprism, measure the fringewidth by measuring the distance traversed by the eyepiece in crossing about10 fringes using the main and circular scales on the eye-piece.10. Interpose the convex lens between the biprism and the eyepiece making surethat
D
>4
 f 
.11. Move the lens along the optical bench till you locate two conjugate positionsof the lens at which you can see real images of the double slit in the field of view of the eyepiece.12. Without disturbing the positions of the slit, biprism and the eyepiece measurethe double-slit image separations
1
and
2
13. Using equations (2) and (3) calculate
λ
.
Observations
Vernier Constant for the bench stands :Least count of the micrometer screw of the eye piece :(next page)
 
 Fresnel Biprism
94Table 1Measurement of fringe-width
a) Position of the slit on the bench = …cm.b) Position of the biprism on the bench = …cm.c) Position of the eye-piece on the bench = …cm.
Table 1
Readings (mm) of micro- meterscrewApparentdistancebetweenthe slitand theeye-piece(cm)Direction of theeye-piecemovementEye-pieceset atthefringesLiner scale CircularscaleTotalWidthfor 10fringesR(mm)Mean R(mm)Meanfringewidth
 x=R/10
(mm)111L
R12222313
 D
1
R
L122
 x
1
111L
R12222313
 D
2
R
L122
 x
2

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