Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A
Development and calibration of radio-isotopecone penetrometers
Abhay K. Shrivastava
Visiting Scientist, M2C UMR 6143 CNRS, Centre de Geomorphologie, Universite´ de Caen, 24 rue des Tilleuls, 14000 Caen, France
Received 27 August 2004; accepted 16 September 2004
Radio-Isotope cone penetrometers (RI-cones) are developed to measure the basic soil properties like water contentand soil density under in situ conditions in real time along with other parameters such as soil strength andhydrogeologic conditions of subsurface soils. In this paper, a brief description of these cone penetrometers is followedby their calibrations and the use of single calibration curve for different types of soils is discussed. Two case studies havebeen presented. It has been shown that under marine conditions a correction is required for the measured water contentas the presence of chloride ions, a very strong neutron absorber, can underestimate the measured water content.
2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
07.88.+y; 89.20.Bb; 93.85.+q
RI-cones; In situ testing; Water content; Density; Calibration curve; Neutron absorber
Cone Penetration Technology (CPT) has been inuse for more than six decades for site character-ization for geotechnical purposes. The last decadeor so has seen a rapid development in sensortechnology, in electronics, miniaturization of computers and augmentation of its processingpower has facilitated the incorporation of varioussensors in a cone penetrometer body for variousapplications. Site characterization whether forgeotechnical or geoenvironmental purposes, canbe very expensive and can sometimes account formore than 30 percent of the total budget. Beforeany foundation plan is laid, it is important todelineate the soil characteristics in detail. Tomeasure some of the basic soil properties, likewater content and the density of soil, samples arerequired which may be of suspected quality.This method is not only inefﬁcient but alsoexpensive. To determine such properties under insitu conditions, two different types of cone
ARTICLE IN PRESS
2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.nima.2004.09.044
Tel.: +33231565709; fax: +33231565757.