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SPMphysics_f4Chapter2

SPMphysics_f4Chapter2

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Published by nrsz

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Published by: nrsz on Aug 18, 2009
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05/11/2014

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 1
2.1 LINEAR MOTIONPhysicalQuantityDefinition, Quantity, Symbol and unitDistance,
Distance is the total path length traveled from onelocation to another.Quantity: scalar SI unit: meter (m)Displacement,
(a) The distance in a specified direction.(b) the distance between two locations measured alongthe shortest path connecting them in a specificdirection.(c) The distance of its final position from its initialposition in a specified direction.Quantity: vector SI unit: meter (m)Speed,vSpeed is the rate of change of distanceSpeed = Distance traveledTime takenQuantity: scalar SI unit: m s
-1
 Velocity, vVelocity is the rate of change of displacement.Velocity = DisplacementTime takenDirection of velocity is the direction of displacementQuantity : Vector SI unit: m s
-1
Averagespeedv = Total distant traveled, sTotal time taken , tAveragevelocityv = Displacement, sTime taken, tExample: A car moves atan average speed /velocity of 20 ms
-1
On average, the car movesa distance / displacementof 20 m in 1 second for thewhole journey.
Discuss your physics question online at www.physics4spm.com
www.physics4spm.com
 
 
UniformspeedSpeed that remains the same in magnitude regardless of its direction.UniformvelocityVelocity that remains the same in magnitude anddirection.An object hasa non-uniformvelocity if:(a) the direction of motion changes or the motion isnot linear.(b) The magnitude of its velocity changes.Acceleration,a
uva
=
 unit : ms
-2
 accelerationis positiveWhen the velocity of an object changes, the object issaid to be accelerating.Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity.Acceleration = Change in velocityTime taken= final velocity, v – initial velocity, uTime taken, t
 
The velocity of an object increases from an initialvelocity, u, to a higher final velocity, vDecelerationaccelerationis negative.The rate of decrease in speed in a specified direction.The velocity of an object decreases from an initialvelocity, u, to a lower final velocity, v.ZeroaccelerationAn object moving at a constants velocity, that is, themagnitude and direction of its velocity remainunchanged – is not acceleratingConstantaccelerationVelocity increases at a uniform rate.When a car moves at a constant or uniform accelerationof 5 ms
-2
, its velocity increases by 5 ms
-1
for everysecond that the car is in motion.
2
Discuss your physics question online at www.physics4spm.com
www.physics4spm.com
 
 3
1. Constant = uniform2. increasing velocity = acceleration3. decreasing velocity = deceleration4. zero velocity = object at stationary / at rest5. negative velocity = object moves at oppositedirection6. zero acceleration = constant velocity7. negative acceleration = decelerationComparisons between distanceand displacement.
Distance DisplacementTotal path lengthtraveled fromone location toanother The distancebetween twolocationsmeasured alongthe shortest pathconnecting themin specificdirectionScalar quantity Vector quantityIt has magnitudebut no directionIt has bothmagnitude anddirectionSI unit meter SI unit : meter 
Comparisons between speed andvelocity
Speed VelocityThe rate of changeof distanceThe rate of changeof displacementScalar quantity Vector quantityIt has magnitudebut no directionIt has bothmagnitude anddirectionSI unit : m s
-1
SI unit : m s
-1
Fill in the blanks:1. A steady speed of 10 m/s = A distance of .. ……….is traveledevery ………..2. A steady velocity of -10 m/s = A …………. Of 10 m is traveled every………..to the left.3. A steady acceleration of 4 ms
-2
= Speed goes up by 4 m/s every……….4. A steady deceleration of 4 ms
-2
= speed goes ……….. by 4 m/severy ……….5. A steady velocity of 10 m/s = ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Discuss your physics question online at www.physics4spm.com
www.physics4spm.com

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