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Cellular Respiration Explanation

Cellular Respiration Explanation

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Published by vestermail
Explanation of Cellular Respiration.
Explanation of Cellular Respiration.

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Published by: vestermail on Aug 19, 2009
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04/18/2013

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Cellular Respiration
Cellular 
is the process by which food is broken down by the body's cells toproduce
, in the form of ATP molecules. In plants, some of this ATP energy isused during
to produce sugar. These sugars are in turn broken downduring cellular respiration, continuing the cycle.There are three main stages of cellular respiration: 1) glycolysis, 2) Krebs Cycle, and 3)the Electron Transport Chain (ETC).
Cellular Respiration Overview:
 Cellular respiration is carried out by every cell in both plants and animals and isessential for daily living. It does not occur at any set time, and, at the same point in time,Neighboring cells may be involved in different stages of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is an exergonic reaction, which means it produces energy. It is also acatabolic process - it breaks down polymers into smaller, more manageable pieces. Theultimate goal of cellular respiration is to take carbohydrates, disassemble them into
molecules, and then use this glucose to produce energy-rich ATP molecules.The general equation for cellular respiration is: one glucose molecule plus six
molecules produces six carbon dioxide molecules, six water molecules, andapproximately 36-38 molecules of ATP.(Please Note: The three steps of cellular respiration have been summarized below. Thedescription does not include all of the sub-steps involved. Unless you are planning tomajor in a
field, no high school or college course will require you to memorizeeach individual step in these three processes. They are looking only for a generalknowledge of the process as a whole and its major component steps)
Glycolysis:
 Glycolysis involves the breaking down of glucose molecules from
intomolecules of pyruvate, which will continue on to the Krebs Cycle. This process occurs inthe cytosol of the cell and can proceed regardless of the presence of oxygen. In the firststage of glycolysis, energy is actually used to phosphorylate the 6-carbon glucosemolecule. This means that a phosphate is taken from ATP (which becomes ADP) andadded to the glucose molecule. This addition of phosphate makes the molecule muchmore chemically reactive. The position of the glucose molecule is changed, so that itbecomes its isomer, fructose. An
then cuts the molecule apart, producing two3-carbon molecules of pyruvate. Through several more steps, catalyzed by severaldifferent enzymes, the phosphate groups are removed and these pyruvate moleculesare ready to enter the Krebs Cycle. The reactions of glycolysis produces a net gain of 2ATP molecules, as well as a release of 2 water molecules and 2
 molecules(these are another type of energy-rich molecule)
The Krebs Cycle:
 

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basketball1011212 added this note
this really helped! thanks for breaking down the processes in a simple way! teachers should literally teach it this way...if their explanations were still detailed but taught a lot simpler no one would find this hard!
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