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Distribution Strategy

Distribution Strategy

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Published by Komal Shujaat

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Published by: Komal Shujaat on Aug 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The Importance of Distribution:
Most producers use intermediaries to bring their products to market. They try to develop a
distribution channel
marketing channel
) to do this. A
distribution channel
is a set of interdependent organizations that help make a product available for use or consumption bythe consumer or business user.
Channel intermediaries
are firms or individuals such aswholesalers, agents, brokers, or retailers who help move a product from the producer to theconsumer or business user.A company’s channel decisions directly affect every other marketing decision. Placedecisions, for example, affect pricing. Marketers that distribute products through massmerchandisers such as Wal-Mart will have different pricing objectives and strategies than willthose that sell to specialty stores. Distribution decisions can sometimes give a product adistinct position in the market. The choice of retailers and other intermediaries is strongly tiedto the product itself. Manufacturers select mass merchandisers to sell mid-price-range products while they distribute top-of-the-line products through high-end department andspecialty stores. The firm’s sales force and communications decisions depend on how much persuasion, training, motivation, and support its channel partners need. Whether a companydevelops or acquires certain new products may depend on how well those products fit thecapabilities of its channel members.Some companies pay too little attention to their distribution channels. Others, such as FedEx,Dell Computer, and Charles Schwab have used imaginative distribution systems to gain acompetitive advantage.
Functions of Distribution Channels
Distribution channels perform a number of functions that make possible the flow of goodsfrom the producer to the customer. These functions must be handled by someone in thechannel. Though the type of organization that performs the different functions can vary fromchannel to channel, the functions themselves cannot be eliminated. Channels provide time, place, and ownership utility. They make products available when, where, and in the sizes andquantities that customers want. Distribution channels provide a number of logistics or  physical distribution functions that increase the efficiency of the flow of goods from producer to customer. Distribution channels create efficiencies by
reducing the number of transactions
necessary for goods to flow from many different manufacturers to large numbers of customers. This occurs in two ways. The first is called
breaking bulk 
. Wholesalers andretailers purchase large quantities of goods from manufacturers but sell only one or a few at atime to many different customers. Second, channel intermediaries reduce the number of transactions by
creating assortments
 —providing a variety of products in one location—sothat customers can conveniently buy many different items from one seller at one time.Channels are efficient. The
transportation and storage of goods
is another type of physicaldistribution function. Retailers and other channel members move the goods from the production site to other locations where they are held until they are wanted by customers.Channel intermediaries also perform a number of 
facilitating functions
, functions that makethe purchase process easier for customers and manufacturers. Intermediaries often provide
customer services
such as offering credit to buyers and accepting customer returns. Customer services are oftentimes more important in B2B markets in which customers purchase larger quantities of higher-priced products. 
Some wholesalers and retailers assist the manufacturer by providing
repair and maintenance service
for products they handle. Channel members also perform a
function. If aretailer buys a product from a manufacturer and it doesn’t sell, it is “stuck” with the item andwill lose money. Last, channel members perform a variety of 
functions. Wholesalers buy products to make them available for retailers and sell products toother channel members. Retailers handle transactions with final consumers. Channelmembers can provide two-way communication for manufacturers. They may supply the salesforce, advertising, and other marketing communications necessary to inform consumers and persuade them to buy. And the channel members can be invaluable sources of information onconsumer complaints, changing tastes, and new competitors in the market.
A number of alternate 'channels' of distribution may be available:
Selling direct, such as via mail order, Internet and telephone sales
Agent, who typically sells direct on behalf of the producer 
Distributor (also called wholesaler), who sells to retailers
Retailer (also calleddealer or reseller ), who sells to end customers
Advertisement typically used for consumption goodsDistribution channels may not be restricted to physical products alone. They may be just asimportant for moving a service from producer to consumer in certain sectors, since bothdirect and indirect channels may be used. Hotels, for example, may sell their services(typically rooms) directly or through travel agents, tour operators, airlines, tourist boards,centralized reservation systems, etc.There have also been some innovations in the distribution of services. For example, there has been an increase infranchisingand in rental services - the latter offering anything fromtelevisions through tools. There has also been some evidence of service integration, withservices linking together, particularly in the travel and tourism sectors. For example, linksnow exist between airlines, hotels and car rental services. In addition, there has been asignificant increase in retail outlets for the service sector. Outlets such as estate agencies and building society offices are crowding out traditional grocers from major shopping areas.
Channel members
Distribution channels can have a number of levels. Kotler defined the simplest level, that of direct contact with no intermediaries involved, as the 'zero-level' channel.The next level, the 'one-level' channel, features just one intermediary; in consumer goods aretailer, for industrial goods a distributor. In small markets (such as small countries) it is practical to reach the whole market using just one- and zero-level channels.In large markets (such as larger countries) a second level, a wholesaler for example, is nowmainly used to extend distribution to the large number of small, neighborhood retailers.
is all activities involved in selling products to those buying for resale or  business use.
Wholesaling intermediaries
are firms that handle the flow of products fromthe manufacturer to the retailer or business user.Wholesaling intermediaries add value by performing one or more of the following channelfunctions:
Selling and Promoting 
 Buying and Assortment Building 
 Risk Bearing 
Market Information
– giving information to suppliers and customers aboutcompetitors, new products, and price developments

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