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Paragraph Handouts 2

Paragraph Handouts 2

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Published by: marco_meduranda on Aug 19, 2009
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SPOTTING THE TOPIC SENTENCERead the paragraphs below, underline the topic sentence or state it, then draw its graphical representation.
1. I take a walk everyday. Walking makes me feel better for it strengthens my leg muscles, enhances my bloodcirculation and regulates my muscle tone- Walking also relaxes my mind because it is rhythmical and noiseless andrequires no conscious though Walking is, for me, excellent physical and mental relaxation and exercise.2. Fireworks indicate happiness and rejoicing. On New Year's Eve, millions of fireworks and firecrackers are lit andexploded in a sort of national rejoicing over the year’s end. They are not exploded in defiance to orders or asdeclaration of violence but in explosive utterance of people's happiness in being alive and well.3. Like the ocean of water, the ocean of air knows no repose or stillness- It is forever in ceaseless motion. Thoughthere may not be enough wind to move a feather, the air is forever in ceaseless motion. The whole atmosphere is a bigand complex system of air currents and each lesser portion of air has its own lesser circulation. One cannot lift his handwithout causing a tiny breeze; neither can one turn without producing a minute whirlwind. This is because everyseparate air movement draws other movements in its train. ,4. The Filipino is fatalistic. He values, luck as an important element in life and believes that whatever happens to himis the work of Fate. This fatalism is best symbolized in the phrase,
 Bahala na.
5. The soft rays of the setting sun touched for one last long moment and turned to gold, the cross of the little church.Then sweet and clear in the still air, the bells rang the Angelus. Far and wide, through the little valley the sound floatedand all who heard halted in their work. The bells signaled that the work of the day was over.6. If a person begins his reading adventures by reading books which are too difficult for him to understand, he willgive up reading. But if a person's reading is well-guided and supervised by somebody who is genuinely fond of reading,he will become fond of reading and form the reading habit. It is a fact that most students hate to read because they werenot introduced to the right books at the right time.7. The Philippine Archipelago is a cluster of 7,100 islands breaking off the northern portions of Borneo and scattering below the island of Taiwan. Most of the islands are actually the crests of submerged mountain ranges; some of them peaked with volcanoes. Warm and shallow seas teeming with marine life cover the land bridges that once linked thesouthern islands to the mainland Southeast Asia. From the air the archipelago is an emerald arc between the PacificOcean and the South China Sea.8. Bahala na is based on the belief that man is governed by a set of forces beyond his control. Although there is noexact definition of the term, the individual's response to a given situation or condition is one of resignation. Can you gothrough that wall of fire? Bahala na. Are you sure you can convince him to give up his plan of leaving home? Bahalana. There are dangers ahead, don't try it. Bahala na. Don't gamble your last peso; you might go home with pocketsinside out. Bahala na.9. As one goes over the history of man, with its meaningless cycle of wars and peace, triumphs and disasters, faith insome great purpose, some grand design becomes increasingly difficult to keep. Providence appears an illusion. Theabsurdity of existence haunts modern man. If he would live honestly, without false comfort, not like a child but as aman, he must rely solely on himself.10. Man is made of earth. His flesh and blood and his delicate nerves are very different from the coarse materials of theearth but every particle in his body, like every particle in the body of every other living thing, comes directly or indirectly out of the soil, out of the water, out of the air — the material world in which he finds himself. The food out of which he builds his body comes directly from bodies of other animals or from the bodies of plants which, in turn, buildup their bodies directly from three sources - water, air and soil. It is true; therefore, that man is made of earth.
ACTIVITY 2. Achieving Unity and CoherenceCoherence
means to hold together. A paragraph has coherence when the sentences stick together, are woven together so that the reader moves easily from one idea to the next without feeling that then are gaps in thought or confusinglinks. It is obtained by using the same tense and voice of the verbs; using transitional words and phrases and observingrelated sentence patterns.
, on the other hand is oneness of impression in a paragraph. Because the mind loves order and likes to consider one thing at a time, unity is an essential consideration in good composition. The most important way of achieving unityin a paragraph is by building around a topic sentence.
Read the paragraphs below, then pick out and write the topic sentence and the unrelated sentence.
1. It was a beautiful moonlit night. The moon shone so brightly that it seemed to light up the entire landscape likesubdued sunlight. The water gushing from the fountain gleamed and glittered like diamonds as it rose up in the air anddescended in myriad droplets. There were some clouds in the sky which now and then covered the face of the moon. Itwas truly a lovely night.Topic sentence: __________________________________________________________________________________ 
NAME: _____________________ Course/Year/Sec: ____________ Date: ___________ Instructor: Mr. Meduranda
Unrelated sentence:________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The design of an art object is an important element of Muslim Filipino art. Color and motif are aspects of thiselement. Color is found in wood carvings heightening engraved designs and motifs which are highly floral. Color isfound most artistically used in mats and cloths which commonly have geometric design- The sarimanok is also a popular design. Muslim Filipino artists have a preference for bold primary colors - red, yellow and blue. Yellow isconsidered the royal color because it resembles gold which is highly valuable.Topic sentence: __________________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. An Ifugao house is built on four tree trunks. The Ifugaos are highlanders. They would choose a site where theycould have four posts conveniently situated - four tree trunks. Then they cut off the crown of the trees, the tops, leavingthe roots intact and firmly planted. This gave them the support for their house which is elevated so they can get a breezeabove the ground. An example of pre-Spanish handicraft architecture, the Ifugao house presents a truly unique conceptin housing construction.Topic sentence: __________________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. The cornfield is a sultry place. The soil is hot and dry: the wind comes across the lily murmuring leaves full of warmsmell drawn from rapidly growing corn. A flood of blinding light drops upon the field over which the cool shadows runonly to make the heat of the sun more intense. Farther right, a scarecrow dried crisp mutely watches over the growingears of corn.Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 5, The santacruzan is a Maytime street pageant. It recalls the searching and finding of the true cross by St. Helena andConstantine, It is sponsored by the National Press Club. Prominent ladies or popular movie stars in elegant ternos walk underneath flowered arches. Each participant plays the role of a Biblical character. The glow of candles and luces andthe smell of sampaguitas lend beauty to a truly enchanting summer ritual.Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Copper, which is mostly used as electrical conductor, is produced from its ores by electrolytic process. It is reddish.It is highly malleable and ductile and made into ornaments, weapons, jewel; coins and figurines. Generators, motors,radios and heaters use copper extensively because it is a good electrical/heat conductor. It is resistant to atmosphericcorrosion. When alloyed with tin it becomes bronze; with zinc, brass. It can alloy other metals. Toledo City in Cebu isAsia's biggest copper mine.Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 7. I did rough work on my first night in the plant. I swept the floor and picked up waste and dirt with my bare hands. 1carried heavy machine parts in my arms or on my shoulders. I screwed big pipes together. A kind worker showed mehow to hold a file and with it I smoothed off edges of five pushbutton plates- He was a big. handsome, hard workingfellow who had been at the same job for fifteen years and knew many interesting stories about the plant. Within fifteenminutes, my hands were blistered, my arms impregnated with black metal dust and machine oil, and my mouth lull of grease. When I was through at midnight, the muscles of my feet, legs. fingers, hands, arms and back ached terribly. Idragged myself home and slept like a dead man.Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Glaciers are great masses of ice formed by snow. Snow collects on mountains for years then melts and freezes.Each new snowfall supplies ice for the glacier as it packs, melts and freezes again. Glaciers change the earth by pushingand moving rocks, soil and even huge boulders. Mount Everest, which is the highest mountain in the world, has plentyof huge boulders. The rocks and boulders that are pushed along by a glacier cut into the soil and wear away stone. Thiserosion of the earth can broaden valleys and make mountains smooth.Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Antonio always gives people the impression that he is tired. Because he was requested by his mother to close themain door, he hurriedly obeyed. His pace was as fast as a turtle's with broken limbs. Some people always walk slowly.He appeared to have had a hard day's work, and the first impression everybody in ttie family got upon seeing himwas a picture of exhaustion and fatigue.Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 
10. The Philippines has many folk festivals. The Ati-Atihan festival in Aklan, which commemorates the historic sale of Panay and recalls the peace pact between the Negritoes and the Malays who settled in Akian, is one of them. This eventalso commemorates the feast day of the Sto. Nino. The Sto. Nino is well-loved in Akian. Townspeople and their guests paint their Faces and wear colorful costumes as they dance the streets of Kalibo. A Sunday evening procession in honor of the Sto. Nino brings a solemn end to a week of gaiety.Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ Unrelated sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 
ACTIVITY 3. Finding Major and Minor Ideas
Sometimes the topic sentence of a paragraph is complicated. Its development has to be more thorough, there are somesentences that directly support the main idea. These are called
major details
. Major details, in turn, are supported byspecifics called
minor details
.When you study, you have to read for details. This is also true when you write. In such instances, the first step you musttake is to determine the main idea. Then you support this with major details which, in turn, are supported by minor details.
Read each paragraph carefully, then look for major and minor details to support the main idea which has beenprovided for you.
1. Filipino women before the coming of the Spaniards enjoyed a unique position in society. Customary laws gave themthe right to be the equal of men. They could own and inherit property, engage in trade and industry and succeed to thechieftainship of the barangay in the absence of a male heir. They had the exclusive right to give names to their children-Agoncillo & Alfonso
Main Idea: Filipino women enjoyed a unique position in society during pre-Spanish time.
1. _____________________________________________________________________________________ a. b.c.2. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The vulgar in taste — those people whose taste has not been refined through systematic training, criticalobservation and contact with the more cultivated people – are likely to show preference 'or the obvious, the flashy andthe sentimental. They are likely to adorn themselves so as to look like perambulating Christmas trees. They are likely toclutter their homes with odd knickknacks from fairs and bargain counters. They are likely to prefer movies that are fullof sound and fury, signifying nothing. In music, their preference would be those that would cause the splitting of ear drums and the rising of the blood pressure which actually are just noise.-I.V.Mallari
Main Idea: People with vulgar taste prefer the flashy, the obvious, and the sentimental.
1. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Acids can be classified into two groups. Acids which always contain the element carbon are called organic acidsand they often come from growing things like fruits. Citric acid, which is found in calamansi and oranges and other citrus fruits, and acetic acid, which is found in vinegar, are organic acids. Acids which do not contain the elementcarbon are known as inorganic acids. They are usually prepared from non-living matter. Inorganic acids consist only of hydrogen and an acid radical. Hydrochloric acid consists of hydrogen and the chloride radical; and sulphuric acidconsists of hydrogen and the sulphate radical. They are inorganic acids.
Main Idea: Acids can be classified into two groups.
1. _____________________________________________________________________________________ a. b.2. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. He took out of the jute sack a polished coconut shell. The top had been sawed off and holes bored at opposite sides,through which a string tied to the lower part of the shell, passed into a loop. The smaller piece could thus be slipped upand down as a cover. The coconut shell contained cooked rice still a little warm. Buried on the top was a hard-boiledegg. He next brought out a bamboo tube of salt, a cake of brown sugar wrapped in banana leaf and some dried shrimps.Then he spread the sack in what remained of the shade, placed his simple med thereon, and prepared to eat his lunch.But first he drew bucketful of water from the well, setting the bucket on a rock. He seated himself on another rock andate with his fingers. From time to time he drank from the bucket.- Manuel Arguilla

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