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Kinematical analysis of Wunderlich mechanism

Teijo Arponen

, Samuli Piipponen

, Jukka Tuomela

Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 9 January 2013Received in revised form 22 June 2013Accepted 24 June 2013Available online xxxx

We analyze the configuration space of Wunderlich mechanism using tools of computationalalgebraic geometry. We provide the complete description of the configuration space of theWunderlich mechanism by computing the prime decomposition of the relevant variety andanalyzing all of its prime components. We analyze also the effect of the choice of parameters tothe decomposition. The prime components are smooth, but there are numerous intersectionsbetween different components. We give the characterizations of all intersections.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Wunderlich mechanismKinematical analysisSingularity analysisMobility analysisGröbner basesIdeal decomposition

1. Introduction

The well-known Wunderlich mechanism was originally introduced by Wunderlich in [1]. Not without reason he called hismechanism

merkwürdig

(strange or curious), although he might as well used the word

wunderlich

(wonderful or strange).Wunderlich himself in [1] deduced the existence of different motion modes with geometrical arguments. There have been anumber of analysis of this mechanism but as far as we know a complete description of its kinematical properties and the analysisof its singularities has not appeared before. In [2,3] this mechanism is given as an example of a

kinematotropic mechanism

. Thismeans that the mechanism has modes of different mobilities. In our context the mobility is simply the dimension of the relevantvariety, and as willbe seen belowthe configuration space of the Wunderlichmechanism has components of different dimensions.There have been numerous attempts to find a general formula for quick computation of mobility of given mechanism [4].Obviouslytheseformulascan detectonly one typeof mobility and hencethey fail to correctly characterizethe mobility propertiesof mechanisms like Wunderlich mechanism.To analyze the Wunderlich mechanism we use the tools of computational ideal theory [5,6]. These tools have been usedpreviously in analyzing kinematical problems [7

15]. In this approach the configuration space is regarded as a variety and thegoal is to find its irreducible components which correspond to different modes of the mechanism. The description of theirreducible components is obtained by computing the prime decomposition of the ideal defined by the constraint equations. Dueto high computational complexity this is not feasible directly. However, using a kind of divide and conquer strategy which wehave successfully used in [9

11,16,17] we can actually quite easily compute the full decomposition. The basic idea is to note thatWunderlich mechanism is composed of 6 four-bar mechanisms. The prime decomposition of four-bar mechanisms is easilycomputed and then using this in a way described below we could compute the full decomposition of the Wunderlich mechanism.In this way we obtain a simple set of equationsfor each of the modes of the mechanism. It turns out that all these components aresmooth so these new sets of equations can readily be used in dynamical simulations.

⁎

Corresponding author. Tel.: +358 50 3465002.

E-mail addresses:

(T. Arponen), samuli.piipponen@uef.

(S. Piipponen), jukka.tuomela@uef.

(J. Tuomela).0094-114X/$

–

see front matter © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2013.06.011

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Mechanism and Machine Theory

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/mechmt

The Wunderlichmechanism has also been analyzed using a numericalmethod by a team from laboratory Institut de Robòtica iInformàtica Industrial in Polytechnic University of Catalonia [18]. The analysis, however, misses some parts of the configurationspace. In the generic case the correct number of components was already determined by Wunderlich himself: one can say thatthere are 5

“

physically different

”

modes: 3 of them have mobility 2 and 2 have mobility 1.In Section 2 we review some background in computational commutative algebra. In Section 3 present ourmodel and recallthe
necessary decompositions of four-bar mechanisms which are needed in the analysis. In Section 4 we present the fulldecomposition of the Wunderlich mechanism for generic values of parameters, and in Section 5 we study the possiblesingularitieswhichcanoccur.InSection6 weanalyzethesituationforcertainspecialvaluesofparameters,andfinallyinSection7
we present some conclusions.In actual computations we have used, as before, the program

SINGULAR

[19].

2. Mathematical preliminaries

Here we quickly review the necessary tools that will be needed. For more details we refer to [20,5,21,6,22

24].

2.1. Ideals and varieties

Let us consider polynomials of variables

x

1

,

…

,

x

n

with coefficients in the field

K

and let us denote the ring of all suchpolynomials by

A

=

K

[

x

1

,

…

,

x

n

]. In the kinematical analysis we are given a set of polynomials

f

1

,

…

,

f

k

∈

A

and the configurationspace is its zero set. This zero set is called the

variety

corresponding to the system of polynomials and the goal is to analyze thegeometry of this variety using algebraic properties of polynomials.The given polynomials

f

1

,

…

,

f

k

∈

A

generate an

ideal

:

I ¼

f

1

;

…

;

f

k

h i ¼

f

∈

A

f j

f

¼

h

1

f

1

þ

…

þ

h

k

f

k

;

where

h

i

∈

A

g

:

Wesaythatthepolynomials

f

i

are

generators

of

I

andasasettheyarethe

basis

of

I

.Thevarietycorrespondingtoanidealis

∨

I ð Þ ¼

a

∈

K

n

f a

ð Þ ¼

0

∀

f

∈

I j g

⊂

K

n

:

The

radical

of

I

is

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

I p ¼

f

∈

A

j

∃

m

≥

1 such that

f

m

∈

I

:

An ideal

I

is a radical ideal if

I ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

I p

. Note that

∨

I ð Þ ¼

∨

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

I p

. An ideal

I

is

prime

if the following holds:

f

g

∈

I

⇒

f

∈

I

or g

∈

I

:

Evidently a prime ideal is always a radical ideal. Given 2 ideals their

sum

and

quotient ideal

are defined by

I þ J ¼

f

þ

g

∈

A

j

f

∈

I

;

g

∈

J f g I

:

J ¼

f

∈

A

f

g

∈

I

∀

g

∈

J j g

:

f

The geometric meaning of these definitions is that

∨

I þ J ð Þ ¼

∨

I ð Þ

∩∨

J ð Þ

and

∨

I

:

J ð Þ ¼

∨

I ð Þ

=

∨

J ð Þ

where the overline denotes the Zariski closure. The following facts are fundamental(i) every ideal is

finitely generated

, i.e. it has a basis with a finite number of generators. This is the

Hilbert basis theorem

.

(ii) every radical ideal can be decomposed to a finite number of prime ideals:

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

I p ¼

I

1

∩

…

∩

I

s

where each

I

ℓ

is prime. This gives the decomposition of the variety to

irreducible components

:

∨

I ð Þ ¼

∨

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

I p

¼

∨

I

1

ð Þ

∪

…

∪∨

I

s

ð Þ

:

1

More generally the property is valid in

Noetherian rings

and the condition is equivalent to

Ascending chain condition

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T. Arponen et al. / Mechanism and Machine Theory 70 (2013) 16

–

31

In practical computations we need often

elimination ideals

. Let

I

⊂

A

. Then its

k

'th elimination ideal is

I

k

¼ I

∩

K

x

k

þ

1

;

…

;

x

n

:

Geometrically this is related to projections. Let us set

π

k

:

K

n

→

K

n

−

k

;

x

1

;

…

;

x

n

ð Þ

→

x

k

þ

1

;

…

;

x

n

:

Now the connection between these notions is that in nice situations we have in fact

π

k

∨

I ð Þð Þ ¼

∨

I

k

ð Þ

:

ð

1

Þ

In general

∨

I

k

ð Þ

is the

Zariski closure

of

∨

I ð Þð Þ

, see [20,5,6] for a precise statement. However, let us describe a particular casewhich in fact is very useful below.

De

nition 2.1.

The variety

∨

I ð Þ

⊂

K

n

is essentially the same as

∨

I

k

ð Þ

⊂

K

n

−

k

F

:

∨

I

k

ð Þ

→

∨

I ð Þ

such that

π

k

○

F

is identity and

F

can be represented as a graph of a polynomial map

f

. In this case we write

∨

(

I

)

≃ ∨

(

I

k

).The important thing is that in the nice situation if we can compute

I

k

then the same computation gives us in fact also thepolynomial map

f

. Let us introduce the product ordering where

x

j

≻

x

ms

for all

j

≤

k

,

m

N

k

and all

s

. Let us now compute theGröbner basis

G

of some

I

with respect to this ordering. Then we have

Lemma 1.

Let

I

k

¼ I

∩

K

x

k

þ

1

;

…

;

x

n

½

be the kth elimination ideal

.

Then G

e

=

G

∩

[

x

k

+ 1

,

…

,

x

n

]

is a Gröbner basis for

I

k

.

Moreover if

∨

(

I

)

≃ ∨

I

k

ð Þ

then the polynomials in G

/

G

e

give the polynomial map f whose graph is

∨

I ð Þ

.

2.2. Singularities

Let

I ¼

f

1

;

…

;

f

k

h i

be an ideal and let us denote by

f

= (

f

1

,

…

,

f

k

) the map defined by the generators. The differential (or Jacobian) of

f

is then denoted by

df

, and its value at

p

is

df

p

. Let us suppose that

I

is a prime ideal. Then the tangent space of theirreducible variety

V

¼

∨

I ð Þ

at

p

is

T

p

V

¼

z

∈

K

n

df

p

z

¼

0

o

:

n

Note that by definition

T

p

V

is a vector space so its dimension is well defined.

De

nition 2.2.

Let

V

be irreducible. The point

p

∈

V

is singular if dim

T

p

V

N

dim

V

ð Þ

:

Otherwise the point p is smooth. The set of singular points of

V

is denoted by

Σ

(

V

).Let us recall that

Σ

(

V

) is itself a variety whose dimension is less than dim(

V

). Hence

“

almost all

”

points of a variety are smooth.There are basically two ways of a point of a general variety to be singular. Let

V

be a variety with the decomposition toirreducible components:

V

¼

V

1

∪

…

∪

V

l

:

Then the singular points can be characterized as

X

V

ð Þ ¼

∪

li

¼

1

X

V

i

ð Þ

∪∪

i

≠

j

V

i

∩

V

j

:

ð

2

Þ

Once we have the irreducible decomposition it is easy to compute the intersections. To compute the singular points of irreducible components we would need

Fitting ideals

. However, it turns out that the configuration space of the Wunderlichmechanism has only intersection singularities, so we will not need this and refer to [21] for the discussion of how to computethese singularities.Note that in [25] so called

architecture singularities

were analyzed but they are not in fact singularities of the variety but rathersingularities of the chosen constraint map. The given constraint map or the parametrization of the variety may be singularalthoughthe relevantvariety is smooth.Thesingularities as we have defined it are independentof choiceof constraintmap or thegenerators of the corresponding ideal.

18

T. Arponen et al. / Mechanism and Machine Theory 70 (2013) 16

–

31

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