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Preparation of Crude Drugs

Preparation of Crude Drugs

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Published by Rinta Moon
OCCURRENCE IN CRUDE DRUGS
PREPARATION OF CRUDE DRUGS: Collection; Drying; Garbling; Quality control; Packaging; Storage and preservation of crude drugs
OCCURRENCE IN CRUDE DRUGS
PREPARATION OF CRUDE DRUGS: Collection; Drying; Garbling; Quality control; Packaging; Storage and preservation of crude drugs

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Published by: Rinta Moon on Nov 30, 2013
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11/30/2013

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OCCURRENCE IN CRUDE DRUGSCrude drugs play a vital role in mediation. They are obtained rom various sour!es li"e plants# animals and minerals. They o!!ur in variety o morphologi!al orms depending on the nature o their sour!es. $arious !rude drugs are brought to the !ommer!ial mar"et in the ollo%ing !ommon orms& '.Entire orm(.Cut# sli!ed or bro"en orm).*atted or pressed orm+.,o%ered orm-.,eeled ormhen !rude drugs o!!ur o natural origin o!!ur in the entire orm their morphologi!al and sensory !hara!ters# li"e shape# te/ture# e/ternal mar"ings# ra!ture# !olour# odour and taste# are o immense signii!an!e in their identii!ation.
Natural substances
& '.
Plant origin
& leaves# lo%ers# seeds and bar"s. Or vegetable saps# e/tra!ts and se!retions. (.
Animal origin
& %hole animals# glands or organs# e/tra!ts and se!retions. hen drugs o!!ur in po%ered orm they possess very e% ma!ros!opi! morphologi!al eatures o identii!ation other than some sensory !hara!teristi!s li"e !olour# odour and taste.'.
Colour
& Crude drugs may possess almost all types o !olours and shades o !olours.
,o%ders o leaves and herbs generally a!0uire a green to light green to bro%nish green !olour.
,o%ered roots or rhi1omes usually possess a !ream to light bro%n to bro%n !olour.
2ar"s in po%ered orm normally e/hibit a bro%n to deep bro%n !olour.
oods appear o3%hite to !ream to bro%n in their po%ered orm.(.
Odour
& Odour is produ!ed by the volatile !onstituents o many drugs. Intensity i the odour depends on the amount o volatile !onstituents the drug possesses. Odours are !hara!teristi! o individual drugs as they vary rom ea!h other in 0uality as %ell as intensity. Odour is an important parameter or distinguishing or even identiying many !rude drugs o natural origin. The terms !ommonly used or des!ribing odours in!lude&
 Aromatic
# a pleasing s%eet s!ent.
 
Spicy
# an odour similar to the !hara!teristi! smell o spi!es.
 Alliaceous
# a disagreeable odour similar to that o onions.
Camphoraceous
# a strong unpleasant odour.
 Balsamic
# the !hara!teristi! smell o aldehydes.
Characteristic
# %hen the smell is very distin!t but %hen !annot be !orrelated to or !ompared %ith any natural substan!e as the others.).
Taste
& ,roper taste o a substan!e is per!eivable only %hen that substan!e or its !onstituents are soluble or partially soluble in the mouth luid. Tastes o various drugs are oten very useul in their identii!ation and evaluation. Tastes o various !rude drugs may be des!ribed as ollo%s&
 Insipid 
# or tasteless
True tastes
. True tastes !an be4
 Acidic
5sour64
Saline
5salty64
Saccharine
5s%eet64
 Bitter 
 5a very unpleasant repulsive taste6
Odourous tastes
# su!h as
aromatic
#
 balsamic
#
 spicy
#
 alliaceous
#
 camphoraceous
et!.
Sensual tastes
# su!h as4
 Mucilaginous
 5a sot slimy eeling64
Oily
5a bland smooth eeling64
 Astringent
5a pu!"ering or !ontra!ting eeling64
 Pungent 
 5a %arm biting sensation64
 Acrid
5an unpleasant irritating sensation64
 Nauseous
 5a taste %hi!h e/!ites vomiting6+.
Shape
& Drugs o!!ur in various shapes# or e/ample&
 
4
Cylindrical 
 e.g. sarsaparilla4
Sub cylindrical 
 e.g. podophyllum4
Conical 
 e.g. a!onite4
Ovoid 
 e.g. 7alap4
 Dis shaped 
 e.g. nu/3vomi!a-.
External markings
& Su!h as %rin"les# issures# nodules# ring li"e mar"ings# pro7e!tions and s!ars are ound in the !rude drug materials.8.
Fracture
& It reers to the %ay the plant part brea"s %hen sub7e!ted to sui!ient pressure. Certain !hara!teristi!s are as ollo%s&4
Complete
 5brea"ing !lean a!ross64
 Incomplete
5brea"ing only parts64
Short 
 5smooth brea" %ith a 0ui!" snap64
 !ibrous
4
Splintery
5having larger and smaller parts64
 Brittle
5easily bro"en or e/ample %hen dropped onto hard sura!e64
Tough
5brea"ing %ith dii!ulty64
"ea
5brea"ing %ith little eort6,RE,9R9TION O: CRUDE DRUGS2eore sending the !rude drug or sale to the mar"et# it should be prepared properly so that its a!tive !onstituent and appearan!e remain same and does not deteriorate beore use. ,reparation o !rude drugs or the !ommer!ial mar"et involves !olle!tion# drying# garbling# 0uality !ontrol#  pa!"aging# storage and preservation.'.
Collection:
Colle!tion means a!!umulation or pro!uring o the drug rom its natural habitat or natural sour!es. The ollo%ing a!tors must be !onsidered during !olle!tion&

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