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The Impact of Language Planning, Terminology Planning, And Arabicization, On Military Terminology Planning and Translation

The Impact of Language Planning, Terminology Planning, And Arabicization, On Military Terminology Planning and Translation

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Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#
"2
The Impact of Language Planning, Terminology Planning, and Arabicization, on Military Terminology Planning and Translation
r.)ohammad *lsheha+ ,adara niersit/& 0nglish and ranslation epartment ,ordan193!4/ahoo.com
Abstract
he *ra+ militar/ armies hae +een su55ered 5rom the lac6 o5 accurate *ra+ic euialents 5or the a+undant new militar/ terminolog/. his is crucial +ecause modern *ra+ armies hae +een modeled in their structure& +ranches& weaponr/& and ran6ing according to modern 8estern and 0astern *rmies. onseuentl/& the/ need a new reial o5 older terms to meet the 5resh reuirements o5 a modern arm/ along with 8estern design. his paper aims at inestigating the impact o5 :anguage Planning (:P& terminolog/ planning& and *ra+ici;ation on the  polic/ o5 militar/ terminolog/ and translation. It proides guidelines 5or the applications o5 language planning on militar/ terminolog/ at the national leel in ,ordan. his paper deals with the 5ie t/pes o5 :P (puri5ication& reial& re5ormation& standardi;ation& and moderni;ation as classi5ied +/ Nahir (1977.
Keywords
< :anguage Planning& *ra+ici;ation& erminolog/ Planning& )ilitar/ erminolog/ ranslation
Introduction
Regarding the deelopment o5 science and technolog/& there has +een an increasing demand 5or understanding 0nglish language in the deeloping countries. here5ore& to 6eep a+reast with scienti5ic deelopments& ,ordan as a deeloping countr/ adopts 0nglish as a second language. Recentl/& Nida (19"3 indicates that new 0nglish words are used to e=press new concepts& techniues& and inentions that come into e=istence. hese words hae deeloped more rapidl/ during the last decades that cannot +e captured +/ the dictionaries. He adds that this deelopment has +rought to *ra+ic serious linguistic pro+lems. hese pro+lems are represented +/ the eer-e=panding wae o5 newl/ 5ound concepts and techniues 5or which no euialents in *ra+ic e=ist. o 5ace a huge +ul6 o5 0nglish scienti5ic terminolog/& the processes o5 coinage& +orrowing& transliteration& and other means o5 trans5er are made.
1 !ac"ground
:P is characteri;ed +/ a ariet/ o5 isions across decades +/ a ariet/ o5 scholars. Some scholars such as (Haugen 19"9> as ?upta 197#> and 8enistin 19!9 5ocus on :P as language 5orms and standardi;ation issued  +/ language academies. $ther scholars li6e (Ru+in @ ,urnud 1971> Aaram 1973> and ,urnud @ as ?upta 1971 descri+e :P as a change in the language code s/stem. he/ 5ocus on pro+lem soling through the  procedure o5 5ormulation and ealuation. Similarl/& Bishman (1973 and 8enistin (19!' indicate that :P is outlined as pro+lem soling within the conte=t o5 the national language. $n the other hand& auli (1973 maintains that :P is needed to improe languages and to create new ones at arious leels. Binall/& ooper (19!9 descri+es :P as a proposed e55ort to control +ehaior o5 others without authori;ed agencies
 In sum& :P is a process dealing with improing language and moderating new concepts and terminolog/ to meet the eraCs reuirement o5 science and technolog/. Its 5unction is not onl/ in coining new terminolog/& +ut also in reiing archaic terms and e=pressions to sae our culture and religion.
Types of LP
 Nahir(1977 and 0astman (1991 iew that :P is a decision-ma6ing that is geared towards puri5/ing& reiing& re5orming& standardi;ing& or moderni;ing languages to enhance communication within and +etween nations& and to encourage the 5eelings o5 unit/ and solidarit/. Bor more details& a light ought to +e shed at the 5ollowing t/pes o5 :P<
 a. Language Purification
In general& puri5/ing language is an attempt +/ :P agencies to set down Dcorrect usageE to de5end and presere the purit/ o5 the language (Bishman 1971. Howeer& puri5ication is speci5icall/ a plan that precedes moderni;ation. * regional and national polic/ 5or puri5/ing the *ra+ language ought to +e adopted +/ all the academies in the *ra+ world. Fecause *ra+ic is the mirror o5 the Islamic-*ra+ ciili;ation& the academiesC 5unction is to oppose changes in the orthograph/& grammar& and oca+ular/ o5 the *ra+ic language. $n the contrar/& language puri5ication
 per se
 is +ecoming a t/pe o5 language planning that is +eing to ta6e a more moderate position with regard to the technological era and moderni;ation.
b. Language Revival
:anguage reial is an attempt to +ring +ac6 a language that once was +ut no longer is Da normal means o5 conersation and communicationE among people (Nair 1977< 11'.
 
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#
"#
c. Language Reformation
 Nahir (1977 indicates that languages need to +e re5ormed and puri5ied. New policies should +e made +/ decision ma6ers to puri5/ a language o5 5oreign words that hae +een used and acuired during the period o5 a 5oreign power in a countr/.
d.Language Standardization
 Nahir (1977< 11G states& D:anguage standardi;ation is de5ined as a process where+/ one language or dialect spo6en in a region (usuall/ a single political region +ecomes accepted as the maor language o5 the region 5or general usage.E
e.Language Modernization
 Nahir (1977< 117 points out Dplans to moderni;e a languageCs le=icon generall/ deal with e55orts to update oca+ular/ and special terminologies.E
Arabicization Planning
*ra+ici;ation means onl/ transliterating a term into *ra+ic. he er+ 5orm o5 this word is to ara+ici;e which means to
 
trans5er into *ra+ic. i55erent linguists hae de5ined *ra+ici;ation
 #
ta'reeb” 
 
$%&'(
 di55erentl/. 0ach linguist has de5ined it 5rom his point o5 iew& re5lecting the linguistic situation within which he is em+edded.  Numan (19!1 iews the concepts o5 *ra+ici;ation as a mean o5 li+eration and moderni;ation to achiee the goal o5 national& cultural& and political independence o5 the *ra+s. Sa/di (19!2 5ocuses on two ideas o5 *ra+ici;ation> 5irstl/& is adopted +/ the 0ast *ra+ countries& it 5ocuses on le=ical e=pansion. his inoles the rendering or coining o5 new words either 5rom e=isting roots or through translation o5 5oreign terms. In addition& e=isting words through +orrowings 5rom 5oreign languages are ta6en into consideration& 5ollowed +/ reiing and reitali;ing words o5 older usages in the same language. Secondl/& *ra+ici;ation em+raced +/ the North *5rican ountries which attempts to introduce *ra+ic as a replacement 5or the 5oreign languages +eing used in di55erent wal6s o5 li5e. he 5ocus is on ma6ing *ra+ic the onl/ language in administration and dail/ li5e. he/ reect all those who are against *ra+ici;ation& the/ o+liged themseles on ma6ing *ra+ic the language o5 the heart and soul. )an/ *ra+ scholars and writers tend to use the term D*ra+ici;ationE or *ra+i;ation as a s/non/m 5or the term
translation
. Hence& it is necessar/ to distinguish +etween them. ranslation 5ocuses on the meaning and st/le o5 one language when trans5erring to another. *ra+i;ation& howeer& concentrates on using *ra+ic letters to 5orm 5oreign terms that is called transliteration. Bor e=ample& the 0nglish term
Computer
in *ra+ic
 
is
 
kumputer ”
&()*+-
” 
.
*nother e=ample
 , Shoulder-held Redeye,
which means in *ra+ic E
 .%/ 0/23456 7)89: ;:<=>9:
E. Here the militar/ term
 shoulder held 
 is translated into *ra+ic D
#<=>9: 456 7)89:
& while the term 
 Redeye
is transliterated in *ra+ic characters (ar+ici;ed. *s mentioned a+oe& it could +e seen that *ra+ci;ation is a wa/ o5 e=pressing li+ert/ and moderni;ation> it leads to patriotism and national identit/. It is actuall/ a language planning moement.
Terminology Planning
Sager (199' indicates that terminolog/ is the stud/ and the 5ield o5 actiit/ related to collecting& descri+ing&  processing& and producing terms regarding speciali;ed domains to use one or more languages. Sager adds that terminolog/ has a dou+le 5unction which is represented throughout le=icographers and dictionaries to sere language users. erminolog/ planning& generall/& is the decision ma6ing done +/ authori;ed +odies to carr/ out the intents& purposes& and goals o5 speciali;ed 5ields Faldau5 @ Aaplen (2''# de5ine terminolog/ planning as a process which re5ers to actiities and deli+erate e55orts to plan 5or< corpus& status& and acuisition o5 terms as 5ollows<
a. Status Term Planning
*l *+d *lha (199" indicates that status planning re5ers to the distri+ution o5 terms to gien 5unctions. Status  planning is set up as a result o5 authoritatie decisions to maintain and e=tend the range o5 5unctional terms in a  particular setting.
b. Acquisition Term Planning
Faldau5 @ Aaplen (2''# indicate that acuisition term planning is mainl/ concerned with teaching& learning& and gaining o5 newl/ coined terms. *cuisition terminolog/ is a process that deals with increasing the users or the uses o5 the speciali;ed terminologies. 8hen planning is directed towards a termCs use& it 5alls within the title o5 status term planning. Fut when it is directed towards increasing the num+er o5 users such as (spea6ers& listeners and readers& it 5alls within acuisition planning.
c. Corus Term Planning
ooper (199! points that corpus term planning re5ers to purel/ linguistic issues such as coining new
 
terms& and re5orming their spellings and adopting them. It re5ers& in short& to the creation o5 new 5orms +/ word coinage  process& the modi5ication o5 old ones& and the selection 5rom alternatie 5orm in a spo6en or a written code. *ccordingl/& term cultiation& re5orm& standardi;ation& selection& codi5ication& ela+oration and moderni;ation represent instances o5 corpus term planning.
 
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#
"3 *t the regional leel& *l-*+ed *l-Ha and Smadi (199" inestigate the status o5 0nglish and *ra+ic in the Aingdom o5 Saudi *ra+ia. Historicall/& the/ descri+e the status o5 the 0nglish language 5rom 193'-199'& the/ inestigate the 5actors and domains shaping the status o5 0nglish and *ra+ic in AS*. he 5indings o5 the stud/ reeal that there are man/ 5actors that in5luence the status and 5unctions o5 0nglish in AS*. he most important is the rapid economic alteration& which leads to an increasing demand o5 0nglish. he/ 5ind that the e=ternal 5actors and 5orces do not impose this need. Help5ull/& religiousl/-committed people distinguish 0nglish as an instrument 5or religious and non- religious purposes. he/ do not iew 0nglish as danger to the national identit/ and unit/ o5 AS* and the *ra+ world. Burthermore& the/ indicate that it is not a threat to the *ra+ic language in AS*. Suleiman (1999 e=amines the interaction +etween language and societ/ in the )iddle 0ast and North *5rica. He emphasi;es the lin6age +etween *ra+ic language and *ra+-Islamic identit/. hus& the linguistic and cultural identities should +e ta6en into consideration in language polic/ ma6ing. *nother stud/ +/ Suleiman (2''# that discusses the role o5 *ra+ic in the 5ormation o5 national identit/ in the *ra+ )iddle 0ast. he stud/ contri+utes to the understanding o5 nationalism as one dimension o5 the language. Burthermore& the stud/ 5ocuses on the importance o5 language lin6s with national identit/& as national language is a well-6nown nationalist practice. He adds that the well-6nown and the prestige o5 *ra+ic language in the 8orld are ascri+ed to its role as the language o5 Juran. *ccordingl/& he continues& it is an important 5actor to underline the 5act that Islam turns *ra+ic into the language o5 a larger culture that leads to the *ra+ici;ation in man/ communities. Hence& the  position o5 *ra+ic is enhanced and the *ra+ nation will +e com+ined. *t the academic leel& in ,ordan& *l-*+ed *l-Ha and *l-)asaeid (2''9 re5er :P in ,ordan to deli+erate e55orts that in5luence the +ehaior o5 spea6ers with regard to the acuisition& structure& or 5unctional allocation o5 their language codes. he/ add that the need 5or ,ordanians to hae a language polic/ is emphasi;ed +/ :P. his  polic/ could proide the ,ordanians with a linguistic awareness. he/ conclude< Dhe research in language polic/ and language planning& roughl/ 5rom the mid-19!'s to the  present da/& is still in its 5ormatie stage& and there5ore di55icult to characteri;e. Nonetheless& seeral important themes and issues hae +een esta+lished in the literatureE(p.277 *l-*+ed *l-Ha and *l-$laimat (2''# e=amine the role o5 decision-ma6ers in :P. he ground o5 authorit/ was inestigated +/ the ,ordanian *cadem/ o5 *ra+ic& uniersities& and decision-ma6ers 5or *ra+ici;ation o5 the speci5ied 0nglish terminolog/. he stud/ reeals that *ra+ici;ation is iewed as the means to reie the *ra+ identit/ and heritage in science& literature& and art. *lthough 5oreign language use in technolog/& +usiness& industr/& trade& and tourism& +ut it is not shown as a signal o5 progress. onseuentl/& Standard *ra+ic is not iewed as an o+stacle 5or technolog/ communication and progress. Some e55orts hae +een carried out to cope with the scienti5ic progress +/ *ra+ :anguage *cademies in general& and the ,ordanian *cademies in particular& e.g.& the ,ordanian *cadem/ o5 )ilitar/ (,*). heir attempts are made to 5ind out the e=act *ra+ic euialents 5or the 5oreign scienti5ic and militar/ terms as uic6l/ as possi+le. he academ/ deals with )ilitar/ :anguage Planning regarding militar/ terminolog/ 5or all militar/ +ranches. Its signi5icant role is to 5ind the suita+le euialence in *ra+ic 5or the 0nglish 5oreign terms and e=pressions& or in resorting to other t/pes o5 euialences when the/ do not 5ind the suita+le *ra+ic terminolog/. he/ can  +orrow the 0nglish terms and *ra+ici;e them to +e used +/ the militar/ personnel. onseuentl/& these terms  +ecome a part o5 *ra+ic language that could +e dealt with. hese procedures are sited within the polic/ o5 :P. *t the academic leel& *l Sheha+ (2''9 carries out a stud/ that aims at inestigating translation pro+lems +/ e=amining the a+ilit/ o5 militar/ personnel inoled in translation wor6 in the ,ordanian )ilitar/ *cadem/. he/ were as6ed to translate terms and e=pressions within the conte=t o5 militar/ te=ts 5rom 0nglish into *ra+ic. *n 0nglish te=t containing #' militar/ terms and e=pressions was presented to a sample o5 1'' militar/  personnel. It was 5ound that despite haing 5ollowed a 5ew courses in translation& a 5air leel o5 translation competence was o+sered 5or the militar/ personnel. he +ul6 o5 their pro+lems when translating 5rom 0nglish to *ra+ic was le=ical in nature. Similarl/& *l-Smad/ (199! conducts a stud/ that aimed at inestigating two sets o5 G' militar/ terms. he 5irst was accomplished and ara+ici;ed +/ the *cadem/ o5 *ra+ic :anguage in ,ordan& and the other was proposed +/ the users in the ,ordanian *rmed Borces. he results indicated that the items  proposed +/ the users were more accepta+le than the items ara+ici;ed +/ the *cadem/ o5 *ra+ic :anguage in ,ordan. $n the other hand& ,ala+neh (1991 deals with stud/ing the maor issues and pro+lems o5 translation according to the arious models (grammatical& s/ntactical& cultural& and le=ical utili;ed in militar/ translation. In total& )ilitar/ ranslation () is considered a t/pe o5 technical translation as it has its own uniersal terms in +oth the Source :anguage (S: and arget :anguage (:. It deals with denotatie meanings as the militar/ terms within the te=t lac6s aesthetic alues& and 5ocus on their limited euialents in the :. :anguage Planning  pla/ed and still pla/s a signi5icant role in coping with all 5ields o5 terminolog/. :P proides success5ul insights 5or militar/ terminolog/ planning. Planning o5 militar/ terms can satis5/ the needs o5 militar/ personnel in dealing with militar/ li5e. It could +e seen that plans are made to utili;e militar/ terms to e=press new scienti5ic

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