Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!"# ($nline %ol.#& No.1"& 2'1#
c. Language Reformation
Nahir (1977 indicates that languages need to +e re5ormed and puri5ied. New policies should +e made +/ decision ma6ers to puri5/ a language o5 5oreign words that hae +een used and acuired during the period o5 a 5oreign power in a countr/.
Nahir (1977< 11G states& D:anguage standardi;ation is de5ined as a process where+/ one language or dialect spo6en in a region (usuall/ a single political region +ecomes accepted as the maor language o5 the region 5or general usage.E
Nahir (1977< 117 points out Dplans to moderni;e a languageCs le=icon generall/ deal with e55orts to update oca+ular/ and special terminologies.E
*ra+ici;ation means onl/ transliterating a term into *ra+ic. he er+ 5orm o5 this word is to ara+ici;e which means to
trans5er into *ra+ic. i55erent linguists hae de5ined *ra+ici;ation
di55erentl/. 0ach linguist has de5ined it 5rom his point o5 iew& re5lecting the linguistic situation within which he is em+edded. Numan (19!1 iews the concepts o5 *ra+ici;ation as a mean o5 li+eration and moderni;ation to achiee the goal o5 national& cultural& and political independence o5 the *ra+s. Sa/di (19!2 5ocuses on two ideas o5 *ra+ici;ation> 5irstl/& is adopted +/ the 0ast *ra+ countries& it 5ocuses on le=ical e=pansion. his inoles the rendering or coining o5 new words either 5rom e=isting roots or through translation o5 5oreign terms. In addition& e=isting words through +orrowings 5rom 5oreign languages are ta6en into consideration& 5ollowed +/ reiing and reitali;ing words o5 older usages in the same language. Secondl/& *ra+ici;ation em+raced +/ the North *5rican ountries which attempts to introduce *ra+ic as a replacement 5or the 5oreign languages +eing used in di55erent wal6s o5 li5e. he 5ocus is on ma6ing *ra+ic the onl/ language in administration and dail/ li5e. he/ reect all those who are against *ra+ici;ation& the/ o+liged themseles on ma6ing *ra+ic the language o5 the heart and soul. )an/ *ra+ scholars and writers tend to use the term D*ra+ici;ationE or *ra+i;ation as a s/non/m 5or the term
. Hence& it is necessar/ to distinguish +etween them. ranslation 5ocuses on the meaning and st/le o5 one language when trans5erring to another. *ra+i;ation& howeer& concentrates on using *ra+ic letters to 5orm 5oreign terms that is called transliteration. Bor e=ample& the 0nglish term
, Shoulder-held Redeye,
which means in *ra+ic E
.%/ 0/23456 7)89: ;:<=>9:
E. Here the militar/ term
is translated into *ra+ic D
#<=>9: 456 7)89:
& while the term
is transliterated in *ra+ic characters (ar+ici;ed. *s mentioned a+oe& it could +e seen that *ra+ci;ation is a wa/ o5 e=pressing li+ert/ and moderni;ation> it leads to patriotism and national identit/. It is actuall/ a language planning moement.
Sager (199' indicates that terminolog/ is the stud/ and the 5ield o5 actiit/ related to collecting& descri+ing& processing& and producing terms regarding speciali;ed domains to use one or more languages. Sager adds that terminolog/ has a dou+le 5unction which is represented throughout le=icographers and dictionaries to sere language users. erminolog/ planning& generall/& is the decision ma6ing done +/ authori;ed +odies to carr/ out the intents& purposes& and goals o5 speciali;ed 5ields Faldau5 @ Aaplen (2''# de5ine terminolog/ planning as a process which re5ers to actiities and deli+erate e55orts to plan 5or< corpus& status& and acuisition o5 terms as 5ollows<
a. Status Term Planning
*l *+d *lha (199" indicates that status planning re5ers to the distri+ution o5 terms to gien 5unctions. Status planning is set up as a result o5 authoritatie decisions to maintain and e=tend the range o5 5unctional terms in a particular setting.
b. Acquisition Term Planning
Faldau5 @ Aaplen (2''# indicate that acuisition term planning is mainl/ concerned with teaching& learning& and gaining o5 newl/ coined terms. *cuisition terminolog/ is a process that deals with increasing the users or the uses o5 the speciali;ed terminologies. 8hen planning is directed towards a termCs use& it 5alls within the title o5 status term planning. Fut when it is directed towards increasing the num+er o5 users such as (spea6ers& listeners and readers& it 5alls within acuisition planning.
c. Corus Term Planning
ooper (199! points that corpus term planning re5ers to purel/ linguistic issues such as coining new
terms& and re5orming their spellings and adopting them. It re5ers& in short& to the creation o5 new 5orms +/ word coinage process& the modi5ication o5 old ones& and the selection 5rom alternatie 5orm in a spo6en or a written code. *ccordingl/& term cultiation& re5orm& standardi;ation& selection& codi5ication& ela+oration and moderni;ation represent instances o5 corpus term planning.