gi,e their contri6ution to the de,elopment o4 a language.
Basic iological factor
In the 6iological categor*& man* researchers claim that children are 6orn with a ind o4 6iological means (de,ice that ena6les them to understand the principles o4 a language. In other words& this means that language is programmed into the human 6rain. In this contet& language de,elopment happens innatel* and is not in4luenced 6* other 4actors.
+hildren (or in general people who geneticall* ha,e certain mental or ph*sical disorders& ha,e o6stacles which directl* in4luence their language de,elopment. (3racler .& (2'12. Aor instance& children 4acing pro6lems with their hearing& the* will directl* ha,e pro6lems with the pronunciation o4 particular words. In this ind o4 4actor& we ha,e also emotional and 6eha,ioral pro6lems such as depression or aniet* which in4luence the language de,elopment o4 some people.
"#posure and $timulation
an* studies ha,e come to a conclusion that children who are eposed to more ,oca6ular* and more comple grammatical structures de,elop 4aster their language then the others. In this point& stimulating acti,ities and worshops that ha,e to do with language also seem to in4luence language de,elopment.
%pportunities for usage
Some other researches thin that the use o4 language is a more in4luential 4actor compared to 6iological one or eposure. 3heir ,iews might 6e initiated 4rom the 4act that children who are listened to and prompted with stimulating uestions to spea o4ten de,elop their own language sills 4aster than those that do not use language so o4ten. = good eample in this case would 6e the 6a6* o4 a 4amil* who seldom needs to spea as his:her own older si6lings spea 4or them. 3his in4luences language de,elopment a lot and o4ten dela*s the natural de,elopment o4 children.
$ne crucial and ,er* important 4actor in language learning and human de,elopment is
. In order to understand how we learn& it is 4irst necessar* to understand something a6out how do we thin. Intelligence is considered as 6eing 4undamentall* memor*-6ased process. 8earning on the other hand means the d*namic modi4ication o4 memor*. 3he term
re4ers to a set o4 cogniti,e a6ilities through which we o6tain in4ormation and reassem6le mentall* past eperiences. (Kellogg R.3& 2''#. It is in 4act lie a source o4 nowledge and at the same time a e* aspect o4 personal identit*. 5ithout a good memor* language learning would simpl* 6e impossi6le and as a result& one?s de,elopment as well. emor* is undou6tedl* one o4 the most important concepts in remem6ering things& in learning& 6ecause& simpl*& i4 things are not remem6ered& learning cannot tae place at all. emor* ma* also 6e anal*sed as an important part o4 what eeps societ* together& what shapes our culture& and what shapes us as indi,iduals. <,er*thing human 6eings now is part o4 our memor*G all our past eperiences& all we ha,e done.
2.2 '(pes of memor(
emor* is the term gi,en to those structures and processes that are in,ol,ed in the storage and su6seuent retrie,al in4ormation. It is essential to all our li,es. 5ithout a memor* o4 the past& we cannot operate in the present or thin a6out the 4uture. In a ps*chologist point o4 ,iew& the term memor* co,ers three important aspects o4 in4ormation processingG (Kellogg R.3& 2''#.
#ncoding and Memory
5hen particular in4ormation comes into our memor* s*stem& it needs indeed to 6e changed into such a 4orm that our s*stem can cope with& and in this wa* the same ma* 6e stored. Aor eample the case o4 echanging mone* into a di44erent currenc* when one tra,els 4rom one countr* to another. $r the case where a word which is seen (on the 6lac6oard might 6e stored i4 it is changed (encoded into a sound or a meaning (semantic point o4 ,iew. 3here are three main wa*s in which in4ormation can 6e encoded (changedG
! $isual way %through pictures&
" Acoustic one %sounds&
' (emantic %through meaning&