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capriwp70

capriwp70

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 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ The CGIAR Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights(CAPRi) is an initiative of the 15 centers thatbelong to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. The initiative promotes comparative research onthe role played by property rights and collective action institutions in shaping the efficiency, sustainability, and equity ofnatural resource systems.
CAPRi’s
s (IFPRI)
Environment and Production Technology Division (www.ifpri.org).CAPRi Working Papers contain preliminary material and research results and are circulated prior to a full peer review inorder to stimulate discussion and critical comment. It is expected that most Working Papers will eventually be published insome other form, and that their content may also be revised. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/CAPRiWP70.Copyright © August 2007. International Food Policy Research Institute. All rights reserved. Sections of this material maybe reproduced for personal and not-for-profit use without the express written permission of but with acknowledgment toIFPRI. To reproduce the material contained herein for profit or commercial use requires express written permission. Toobtain permission to reprint, contact the IFPRI Communications Division at ifpri-copyright@cgiar.org. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ CGIAR Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi)c/o INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE2033 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006-
1002 USA • T +1 202.862.5600 • F +1 202.467.4439 •
www.capri.cgiar.org
CAPRi Working Paper No. 70
OCTOBER 2007
The Role of Public-Private Partnerships and CollectiveAction in Ensuring Smallholder Participation in High ValueFruit and Vegetable Supply Chains
Clare Narrod and Devesh Roy, International Food Policy Research Institute,Julius Okello, University of Nairobi,Belem Avendaño, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California,Karl Rich, International Livestock Research Institute, andAmit Thorat, Jawaharlal Nehru University
Research Workshop on Collective Action and Market Access for Smallholders 
 
October 2-5, 2006 - Cali, Colombia 
 
 
 
ABSTRACT
Many developing countries have moved into the production of non-traditionalagricultural products to diversify their exports and increase foreign currency earnings. Accessingdeveloped country markets and urban domestic markets requires meeting the food safetyrequirements due to several demand and supply side factors. Food retailers have developedprotocols relating to pesticide residues, field and packinghouse operations, and traceability. In thischanging scenario where food safety requirements are getting increasingly stringent, there areworries regarding the livelihood of the poor since companies that establish production centers inLDCs might exclude them. Poor producers face problems of how to produce safe food, berecognized as producing safe food, identify cost-effective technologies for reducing risk, and becompetitive with larger producers with advantage of economies of scale in compliance with foodsafety requirements. In enabling the smallholders to remain competitive in such a system, newinstitutional arrangements are required. In particular, public-private partnerships can play a keyrole in creating farm to fork linkages that can satisfy the market demands for food safety whileretaining smallholders in the supply chain. Furthermore, organized producer groups monitoringtheir own food safety requirements through collective action often become attractive to buyerswho are looking for ways to ensure traceability and reduce transaction costs. This paper compareshow small producers of different fruit and vegetable products in different countries have copedwith increased demands for food safety from their main export markets. These commodities areKenyan green beans, Mexican cantaloupes, and Indian grapes.Key words: food safety, supply chain management, public private partnerships, collective action,public and private standards, traceability
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1
 
2. Growth of the Supply of Fruits and Vegetables and the Response of LDCS .............................. 4
 
3. Development of Food Safety Standards and Regulations .......................................................... 6
 
4. Role of Supply Chains in the Delivery of Fruits and Vegetables ............................................... 8
 
5. Fruit and Vegetable Production and their Supply Chains from Three Case Studies................. 14
 
6. Difficulties Smallholders Have in Participating in these Supply Chains ................................. 26
 
7. Role of Various Institutions in Involving Smallholders in these Markets ................................ 29
 
8. Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 36
 
References ..................................................................................................................................... 38
 

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