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Highway Geometric Design

Highway Geometric Design

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Published by: harikeerthan on Aug 20, 2009
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07/10/2013

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Design Highway Geometric
4.1 INTRODUCTION4.1.1 Importance of Geometric DesignThe geometric design of a highway deals with the dimensions and layout of visiblefeatures of the highway such as alignment, sight distance and intersection.The geometrics of highway should be designed to provide optimum efficiency intraffic operation with maximum safety at reasonable cost. The designer may be exposedto either planning of new highway net work or improvement of existing highways to meetthe requirements of the existing and the anticipated traffic.It is possible to design and construct the pavement of a road in stages; but it is veryexpensive and rather difficult to improve the geometric elements of a road in stages at alater date. Therefore it is important to plan and design the geometric features of the roadduring the initial alignment itself taking into consideration the future growth of trafficflow and possibility of the road being upgraded to a higher category or to a higher designspeed standard at a later stage. Geometric design of highways deals with following elements : (1)Cross section elements(2)Sight distance considerations(3)Horizontal alignment details(4)Vertical alignment details(5)Intersection elements Under cross section elements, the considerations for the width of pavement, formationand land, the surface characteristics and cross slope of pavement are included. The sightdistance or clear distance visible ahead of a driver at horizontal and vertical curves and atintersections govern the safe movements of vehicles.The change in the road directions are made possible by introducing horizontal curves.Super-elevation is provided by raising the outer edge of pavement to counteract thecentrifugal force developed on a vehicle traversing a horizontal curve; extra pavementwidth is also provided on horizontal curves. In order to introduce the centrifugal forceand the super-elevation gradually, transition curve are introduced between the straightand circular curves. The gradients and vertical curves are introduced in the verticalalignment of a highway. Design of road intersections with facilities for safe and efficienttraffic movement needs adequate knowledge of traffic engineering.Highway geometrics are greatly influenced by the topography, locality and trafficcharacteristic and the requirements of design speed. The factors which control thegeometric design requirements are speed, road user and vehicular characteristics, design
 
traffic, traffic capacity and benefit-cost considerations. However, speed is the factor which is important governing most of the geometric design elements of roads, as may beseen from the subsequent articles of this chapter.4.1.2
Design Controls and criteria
The geometric design of highways depends on several design factors. The importantof these factors which control the geometric elements are:(1)Design speed(2)Topography(3)Traffic factors(4)Design hourly volume and capacity(5)Environmental and other factors.Design speed The design speed is the most important factor controlling the geometric designelements of highways.
 
The cross slope for shoulders should be 0.5% steeper than the cross slope of adjoining pavement, subject to a minimum of 3.0% ( and a maximum value of 5.0% for earthshoulders).
Providing camber in the field 
For providing the desired amount and shape of camber, templates of camber boardsare prepared with the specified camber. These are used to check the lateral profile of finished pavement during construction. Depending on the shape of the camber chosen,the camber of parabolic camber, the general equation y = x2/a may be adopted.Hence,
Example 4.1 
In a district where the rainfall is heavy, major district road of WBM pavement, 3.8 mwide, and a state highway of bituminous concrete pavement, 7.0 m wide are to beconstructed. What should be the height of the crown with respect to the edges in thesetwo cases ?
Solution 
For WBM roadProvide a camber rate of 1 in 33 as the rainfall is heavy. Rise of crown with respect toedgesFor bituminous concrete road Provide a cross fall of 1 in 50Rise of crown with respect to the edges
4.2.3 Width of Pavement or Carriageway
The pavement or carriageway width depends on the width of traffic lane and number of lanes. The carriageway intended for one line of traffic movement may be called atraffic lane. The lane width is determined on the basis of the width of vehicle and theminimum side clearance which may be provided for the safety. When the side clearanceis increased ( up to a certain limit ) there is an increase in operating speed of vehicles andhence an increase in capacity of the traffic lane. Keeping all these in view a width of 3.75m is considered desirable for a road having two or more lanes, width of 3.5 m per lane isconsidered sufficient.

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