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Petrochemical Abbreviation(RANJIT KUMAR-SK E&C)

Petrochemical Abbreviation(RANJIT KUMAR-SK E&C)

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definition of the abbreviation used in refinery and petrochemical process and construction
definition of the abbreviation used in refinery and petrochemical process and construction

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Published by: ranjitkumar197 on Aug 20, 2009
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PETROCHEMICAL ABBREVIATIONABSOLUTE PRESSUREPressure measured with respect to zero pressure, as distinct frompressure measured with respect to some standard pressure suchas atmospheric pressure. Thus, 2 Bar gauge (i.e. atmospheric) isequivalent to 3 Bar absolute. (Atmospheric pressure being 1 barabsolute).ABSOLUTE TEMPERATUREA temperature at which zero is a condition absolutely free of heatand equivalent to -459oF or –273oC. To convert temperature onFahrenheit or centigrade scales to degrees absolute, add 459 or273 respectively.ACCELERATOR 1. A substance that hastens a reaction, usually by acting as acatalyst, as in the vulcanization of rubber.2. Any of several automobile attachments for increasing the speedat will, especially a foot-operated throttle.ACCUMULATOR A vessel for the temporary storage of a gas or liquid; usually usedfor collecting sufficient material for a continuous charge to somerefining process.ACETYLENE C2H2A highly unsaturated hydrocarbon gas usually made by the actionof water on calcium carbide and by pyrolysis of natural gas. It islargely used in industry for cutting and welding metals. Severalimportant intermediates have been synthesised from acetylenebut a cheaper route via ethylene has now been developed formany of them.
1. Created by Ranjit Kumar
ACIDA member of an important and fundamental category of chemicalsubstances characterised by having an available reactive hydrogenand requiring an alkali to neutralise them. Acid solutions usuallyhave a sour, biting and tart taste, like vinegar.ADDITIVEA substance added to a product in order to improve its properties.ADIP TREATINGA process for removal of hydrogen sulphide from hydrocarbongases and LPG by a specific regenerable solvent.Carbon dioxide and, to a certain extent, carbonyl sulphide can beremoved at the same time. The solvent employed is an aqueousDIPA solution.ADSORPTION PROCESSA fractionation process based on the fact that certain highlyporous materials preferentially adsorb certain types of moleculeson their surface, e.g. PSA units.AEROMETER An instrument for ascertaining the weight or density of air or othergases.AGGREGATEAs applied to non-bituminous materials, the inert material, such assand, gravel, or broken stone, with which cementing material ismixed to form a mortar or concrete.AIR-BLOWN ASPHALTAsphalt produced by blowing air through residual oils or similarmineral oil products at moderately elevated temperatures.AIR HEAT EXCHANGER A heat exchanger in which air is used as the cooling medium.
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AIR SWEETENINGIn this process sour gasoline fractions are sweetened bydissolving air in the hydrocarbon phase followed by contactingwith a strong NaOH aqueous solution. The reaction productsformed are disulphides which dissolve in the sweetened gasolineand water remaining in the aqueous phase.ALCOHOLSA class of organic compounds containing oxygen (as a hydroxyl),of which ethyl alcohol (the alcohol of potable spirits and wines) isthe best known. They can react with acids to form esters. They arelargely used as solvents.ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONSHydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are arranged in openchains, which may be branched. The term includes paraffins andolefins and provides a distinction from aromatics and naphtheneswhich have at least some of their carbon atoms arranged in closedrings.ALKALIIn chemistry, any substance having marked basic properties. In itsrestricted and common sense, the term is applied only tohydroxides of ammonium, lithium, potassium, and sodium. Theyare soluble in water, they have the power of neutralising acids andforming salts with them and of turning red litmus blue. In a moregeneral sense, the term is also applied to the hydroxides of the so-called alkaline earth metals - barium, calcium, and strontium.ALKALI TESTA test to determine the presence or absence of free alkali infinished oils after chemical purification.ALKALINEHaving the properties of an alkali; opposite to acidic.ALKALINITYThe amount of free alkali in any substance.
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