22.254 million ha and in the coastal area 1.2 million ha has been identified as potential resource for finfish and shellfish farming.
Riverine resources of India
The inland water resources harbour the original germplasm of one of the richest and diversified fish fauna of the world, comprising 930 fish species belonging to 326 genera, out of 25,000 total fish species recorded world-wide. The major river systems of India on the basis of drainage can be divided broadly into two-(i) Himalayan river system (Ganga, Indus and Brahmaputra), and
Peninsular river system (East coast and West coast river system). State-wise distribution of riverine resources of India along with their lengths is depicted in Table 2 and the details of the area and potential fish yield of the major rivers are furnished in Table 3.
The rivers of India are being subjected to considerable stress and accordingly the adverse effects are being manifested in poor fish landing, both in terms of quality and quantity. The prized fisheries such as Indian major carp have either collapsed or are at the threshold of collapse.
1. GANGA RIVER SYSTEM:
It is one of the largest river systems of the world, having a combined length (including tributaries) of 12,500 km. After originating from Himalayas, it drains into the Bay of Bengal after traversing a distance of 2,225 km. The Ganga river system harbours about 265 fish species, out of these 34 species are of commercial value including the prized Gangetic carps, large catfishes, featherbacks and murrels. In mountainous region, from source to Hardwar the fisheries are dominated by
spp., catfishes, mahseer and
spp. The commercial fisheries assume importance in 1,005 km middle stretch of the river (Kanpur to Farakka). The mainstay of fishery is the species belonging to cyprinidae (176 species) and siluridae (catfishes). Table 2. The profile of various river systems in India
River system Name of main river Approximate length (km) State Ganga Ganga 2,525 Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal Ranganga 569 Uttar Pradesh Gomti 940 Uttar Pradesh Ghaghra 1,080 Uttar Pradesh, Bihar Gandak 300 Bihar Kosi 492 Bihar Yamuna 1,376 Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh Chambal 1,080 Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan Tons 264 Uttar Pradesh Son 784 Uttar Pradesh Ken 360 Madhya Pradesh Brahmaputra Brahmaputra 4,000 Arunachal Pradesh Dibang, Siang, Assam Lohit, Manas, Nagaland Duri, Dihang, Sikkim Dhansri, Koppili Manipur Indus Jhelum 400 Jammu and Kashmir Ghenab 330 Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh Beas
Himachal Pradesh, Punjab Sutlej Himachal Pradesh, Punjab Ravi Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab East Coast Mahanadi 851 Orissa, Madhya Pradesh