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drug study

drug study

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Published by udntnid2knwme

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Published by: udntnid2knwme on Aug 21, 2009
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08/18/2013

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 1.
Generic name:
Metformin and Sitagliptin
Brand name:
Janumet
Classification:
Anti diabetic
Dosage:
50mg 1 tab OD
Action:
Decreases hepatic glucose production. Decreases intestinal glucose absorption.Increases sensitivity to insulin.
Indications:
Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus; may be used with diet, insulin, orsulfonylurea hypoglycemia.
Contraindications:
hypersensitivity, metabolic acidosis, dehydration, sepsis, renaldysfunction, hepaticimpairment.
Side effects:
diarrhea, nausea, unpleasant metallic taste.
Nursing considerations:
Assess for patient's history of diabetes
Monitor for patient's blood glucose before and after giving medications
Assess for hypersensitivity to Metformin
Assess for patient's renal function
Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypoglycemic reactions (e.g. cold andclammy skin)
Discontinue if renal impairment occurs
Instruct patient to do proper foot care
instruct patient for unpleasant metallic taste of the drug2.
Generic Name:
Losartan
Brand Name:
Cozaar
Classification:
antihypertensive
Dosage:
50/500 mg 1 tab BID
Action:
blocks vasoconstrictor and aldosterone producing effects of angiotensin II atreceptor sites, including vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal glandsIndications: Hypertension, DM type 2, CHF, and patients who can not tolerate ACEinhibitors
Contraindications:
hypotension, pregnancy and lactationSide Effects: fatigue, weakness, drug induced hepatitis, bradycardia, hypotension
Nursing Considerations:
Monitor for blood pressure, ECG, pulse frequently during dose adjustments
Monitor for intake and output ratios and daily weight.
Assess for signs and symptoms of CHF
Assess for signs and symptoms of Hypotension
Instruct patient to have a low fat low sodium diet regimen
Assess for signs of angioedema
Monitor BUN and serum creatinine levels
Monitor for signs of hyperkalemia3.
Generic name:
CLopidogrel
Brand name:
Norplat
Classification:
Anti platelet
Action:
Inhibits platelet aggregation by blocking ADP receptors on platelets, preventingclumping of platelets.
Indications:
treatment of patients at risk for ischemic events and peripheral arterydisease, acute coronary syndrome, as a loading dose with aspirin to prevent adversecardiac events in coronary stent implantation
Contraindications:
hypersensitivity, active pathological bleeding, lactation, usecautiously with bleeding disorders, recent surgery, hepatic impairment, pregnancy
Side effects:
Headache, dizziness, weakness, hypertension, edema, nausea, GI distress,constipation, diarrhea. Increased bleeding risk
Nursing considerations:
Assess for hypersensitivity to clopidogrel
Assess for bleeding disorders
Provide small frequent meals if GI upset occurs
Provide comfort measures and arrange for analgesics if headache occurs
Give client awareness to the side effects of the drug
Provide a safety environment4.
Generic name:
Rosuvastatin calcium
Brand name:
Crestor
Classification:
Anti-hyperlipidemicHMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
Dosage:
20 mg 1 tab OD
Action:
A fungal metabolite that inhibits the enzyme (HGM-CoA) that catalyzes the firststep in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, resulting in a decreaseIn serum cholesterol, serum LDLs (associated with increased risk of coronary arterydisease) and either an increase or no change in serum HDLs (associated with decreased)
Indications:
an adjunct to diet in the treatment of elevated total cholesterol, mixeddyslipidemia, atherosclerosis,
Contraindications:
hypersensitivity, impaired hepatic function, alcoholism, renalimpairment, advanced age, hypothyroidism
Side effects:
Nausea, dyspepsia, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, rhinitis, sinusitis,cough, dyspnea, pneumonia
Nursing considerations:
Arrange for proper consultation about need for diet and exercise changes
Administer drug at bed time
Monitor patient closely for signs of muscle injury, especially higher doses
Provide comfort measures to deal with headache, muscle cramps, ornausea
Offer support and encouragement to deal with disease, diet, drug therapy,and follow-up care.5.
Generic Name:
Vitamin B complex
Classification:
Vitamins-Includes Vitamin B1, B2, B6 and B12
Dosage:
1 tab OD PO PC breakfast
 
Action:
B1: Thiamin: Required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and for normal nerve functionB2: Riboflavin:Required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids and for healthy mucous membranes, such as those lining the mouthB6: Pyridoxine: Required for the metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids, for nerve function, for formation of red blood cells and for healthy skinB12: Cobalamin: Required for maturation of red blood cells, for nerve function, and DNA synthesis
Indication:
Indicated to the following diseases, manifesting with a vitamin B deficiency: neuritis; alcohol, toxic, and post infectious polyneuritis; diabetic polio neuropathy; neuralgia;sciatica central spastic conditions; myasthenia; paresthesia; atherosclerosis; Wernicke’s encephalopathy; vegetative neurosis; dermatitis; neurodermatitis; psoriasis; lupuserythematodes; furunculosis; stomatitis;
Contraindication
: Vitamin B complex should not be used in hypersensitivity to any of the vitamins, containing in the preparation, as well as in patients with 2nd and 3rd degree arterialhypertension
Side effects:
Although the preparation is very well tolerated, in rare cases in predisposed patients itching, urticaria, and Quincke’s edema may appear.
Nursing considerations:
Make sure patient gets the right dose
The vitamin should be taken once a day6.
Generic name:
Cilostazol
Brand name:
Pletal
Classification:
Antiplatelet
Dosage:
50mg/tab 1 tab BID PC
Action:
Reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation induced by a variety of stimuli including ADP, thrombin, collagen, shear stress, epinephrine, arachidonic acid by inhibiting cAMPphosphodiesterase III; produces vascular dilation in vascular beds with a specificity for femoral beds; seems to have no effect on renal arteries.
Indication:
Reduction of symptoms of intermittent claudication allowing increased walking distance.
Contraindication:
Contraindicated with allergy to cilostazol, heart failure of any severity (decreased survival rates have occurred), active bleeding, hemostatic disorders.
Side effects:
dizziness, headache, heart failure, tachycardia, palpitations, diarrhea, cough, dyspepsia, peripheral edema, infection, back pain
Nursing considerations:
Assess for heart failure
Administer drug on an empty stomach, at least 30 min before or 2 hr after breakfast and dinner
Encourage patient to avoid use of grape fruit juice
Establish walking distance to monitor drug effectiveness
Establish safety precautions to avoid injury and bleeding
Encourage patient to continue therapy, results may not be seen for 2-4 wks
Give patient awareness to the side effects of the drug7.
Generic name
: Sulodexide
Brand name:
Vessel due F
Classification:
Anticoagulant, antithrombotics and fibrinolytics
Dosage:
1 tab BID PC
Action:
Inhibits coagulation by attacking several sites of the coagulation system. Its effect is dependent on the presence of antithrombin III, an alpha 2- globulin whoseactivity is augmented by heparin. The heparin- antithrombin complex inactive factors IXa, Xa, XIa, and XIIa, and prevents thrombin formation. Furthermore, the complex reverses theeffect of already formed thrombin. In high concentrations, heparin also inhibits thrombocyte aggregation.

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