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BAI_GIANG_KCT_22TCN_272-05-version_1

BAI_GIANG_KCT_22TCN_272-05-version_1

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http://www.ebook.edu.vn
B\u00e0i gi\u1ea3 ng K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p theo Ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9 n 22 TCN 272-05 v\u00e0 AASHTO LRFD
1
Ch\u01b0 \u01a1 ng 1 \u0110\u1ea0 I C\u01af \u01a0 NG V\u1ec0 THI\u1ebe T K\u1ebe K\u1ebe T
C\u1ea4 UTH\u00c9P
1.1\u0110\u1eb7 c \u0111i\u1ec3 m v\u00e0 ph\u1ea1 m vi s\u1eed d\u1ee5 ng c\u1ee7 a k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p
1.1.1\u01af u \u0111i\u1ec3m
K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p c\u00f3 nh\u1eef ng \u01b0 u \u0111i\u1ec3 m c\u01a1 b\u1ea3 n.

K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng ch\u1ecbu l\u1ef1 c l\u1edb n. Do c \u01b0 \u1edd ng \u0111\u1ed9 c\u1ee7 a th\u00e9p cao n\u00ean c\u00e1c k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ch\u1ecbu \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c nh\u1eef ng l\u1ef1 c kh\u00e1 l\u1edb n v\u1edb i m\u1eb7 t c \u1eaf t kh\u00f4ng c\u1ea7 n l\u1edb n l\u1eaf m, v \u00ec th\u1ebf c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u1ee3 i d\u1ee5 ng \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c kh\u00f4ng gian m\u1ed9 t c\u00e1ch hi\u1ec7 u qu\u1ea3 .

Vi\u1ec7 c t\u00ednh to\u00e1n k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ed9 tin c\u1ead y cao. Th\u00e9p c\u00f3 c\u1ea5 u tr\u00fac kh\u00e1 \u0111\u1ed3 ng \u0111\u1ec1 u, m\u00f4 \u0111un
\u0111\u00e0n h\u1ed3 i l\u1edb n. Trong ph\u1ea1 m vi l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7 c \u0111\u00e0n h\u1ed3 i, k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p kh\u00e1 ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3 p v\u1edb i c\u00e1c gi\u1ea3 thi\u1ebf t
c\u01a1b\u1ea3 n c\u1ee7 a s\u1ee9 c b\u1ec1 n v\u1ead t li\u1ec7 u \u0111\u00e0n h\u1ed3 i (nh\u01b0 t\u00ednh \u0111\u1ed3 ng ch\u1ea5 t, \u0111\u1eb3 ng h\u01b0 \u1edb ng c\u1ee7 a v\u1ead t li\u1ec7 u, gi\u1ea3 thi\u1ebf t
m\u1eb7 t c\u1eaf t ph\u1eb3 ng, nguy\u00ean l\u00fd\u0111\u1ed9 c l\u1ead p t\u00e1c d\u1ee5 ng).
K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p \u201cnh\u1eb9 \u201d nh\u1ea5 t so v\u1edb i c\u00e1c k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u l \u00e0m b\u1eb1 ng v\u1ead t li\u1ec7 u th\u00f4ng th\u01b0 \u1edd ng kh\u00e1c (b\u00ea
t\u00f4ng, g\u1ea1 ch \u0111\u00e1, g\u1ed7 ). \u0110\u1ed9 nh\u1eb9 c\u1ee7 a k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u \u0111 \u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 b\u1eb1 ng h\u1ec7 s\u1ed1c =\ue008\ue005
\ue005
, l\u00e0 t\u1ef7 s\u1ed1 gi\u1eef a t\u1ef7
tr\u1ecd ng\ue003 c\u1ee7 a v\u1ead t li\u1ec7 u v\u00e0 c\u01b0 \u1edd ng \u0111\u1ed9F c\u1ee7 a n\u00f3. H\u1ec7 s\u1ed1c c\u00e0ng nh\u1ecf th\u00ec v\u1ead t li\u1ec7 u c\u00e0ng nh\u1eb9 . Trong
khi b\u00ea t\u00f4ng c\u1ed1 t th\u00e9p (BTCT) c\u00f3
1
m
\ue00d
\ue00b\ue00d\ue007\ue00a\ue009
\ue019
\ue004
\ue006
, g\u1ed7 c\u00f3
1
m
\ue00d
\ue00d\ue005\ue00e\ue007\ue00a\ue009
\ue019
\ue004
\ue006
th\u00ec h\u1ec7 s\u1ed1 c c\u1ee7 a
th\u00e9p ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0
1
m
\ue00d
\ue00c\ue005 \ue010\ue007\ue00a\ue009\ue004
(T\u00e0i li\u1ec7 u [1])

K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p th\u00edch h\u1ee3 p v\u1edb i thi c\u00f4ng l\u1eaf p gh\u00e9p v \u00e0 c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng c\u01a1 gi\u1edb i ho\u00e1 cao trong ch\u1ebf t\u1ea1 o. C\u00e1c c\u1ea5 u ki\u1ec7 n th\u00e9p d\u1ec5 \u0111 \u01b0 \u1ee3 c s\u1ea3 n xu\u1ea5 t h\u00e0ng lo\u1ea1 t t\u1ea1 i x\u01b0 \u1edf ng v\u1edb i \u0111\u1ed9 ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c cao. C\u00e1c li\u00ean k\u1ebf t trong k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p (\u0111inh t\u00e1n, bu l\u00f4ng, h \u00e0n)t\u01b0 \u01a1 ng \u0111\u1ed1 i \u0111\u01a1 n gi\u1ea3 n, d\u1ec5 thi c\u00f4ng.

K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p kh\u00f4ng th\u1ea5 m ch\u1ea5 t l\u1ecf ng v \u00e0 ch\u1ea5 t kh\u00ed do th\u00e9p c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ed9 \u0111\u1eb7 c cao n \u00ean r\u1ea5 t th\u00edch
h\u1ee3 p \u0111\u1ec3 l\u00e0m c\u00e1c k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u ch\u1ee9 a \u0111\u1ef1 ng ho\u1eb7 c chuy\u1ec3 n ch\u1edf c\u00e1c ch\u1ea5 t l\u1ecf ng, ch\u1ea5 t kh\u00ed.
So v\u1edb i k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u b\u00ea t\u00f4ng, k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p d\u1ec5 ki\u1ec3 m nghi\u1ec7 m, s\u1eed a ch\u1eef a v\u00e0 t\u0103ng c\u01b0 \u1edd ng.
1.1.2Nh\u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u0111i\u1ec3 m
B\u00ean c\u1ea1 nh c\u00e1c \u01b0 u \u0111i\u1ec3 m ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebf u k\u1ec3 tr\u00ean, k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p c\u0169 ng c\u00f3 m\u1ed9 t s\u1ed1 nh \u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u0111i\u1ec3 m.
K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p d\u1ec5 b\u1ecb han g\u1ec9, \u0111 \u00f2i h\u1ecf i ph\u1ea3 i c\u00f3 c\u00e1c bi\u1ec7 n ph\u00e1p ph \u00f2ng ch\u1ed1 ng v\u00e0 b\u1ea3 o d\u01b0 \u1ee1 ng
kh\u00e1 t\u1ed1 n k\u00e9m. \u0110\u1eb7 c bi\u1ec7 t, y\u00eau c\u1ea7 u ch\u1ed1 ng g\u1ec9 cao \u0111\u1eb7 t ra cho c\u00e1c k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u c\u1ea7 u l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7 c trong m\u00f4i
tr\u01b0 \u1edd ng x\u00e2m th\u1ef1 c l\u1edb n.
http://www.ebook.edu.vn
B\u00e0i gi\u1ea3 ng K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p theo Ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9 n 22 TCN 272-05 v\u00e0 AASHTO LRFD
2
Th\u00e9p ch\u1ecbu nhi\u1ec7 t k\u00e9m. \u1ede nhi\u1ec7 t \u0111\u1ed9 tr \u00ean 4000C, bi\u1ebf n d\u1ea1 ng d\u1ebb o c\u1ee7 a th\u00e9p s\u1ebd ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3 n
d\u01b0 \u1edb i t\u00e1c d\u1ee5 ng c\u1ee7 a t\u0129nh t\u1ea3 i (t\u1eebbi\u1ebf n c\u1ee7 a th\u00e9p). V\u00ec th\u1ebf , trong nh\u1eef ng m\u00f4i tr \u01b0 \u1edd ng c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec7 t \u0111\u1ed9
cao, n\u1ebf u kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 nh\u1eef ng bi\u1ec7 n ph\u00e1p \u0111\u1eb7 c bi\u1ec7 t \u0111\u1ec3 b\u1ea3 o v\u1ec7 th \u00ec kh\u00f4ng\u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c ph\u00e9p s\u1eed d\u1ee5 ng k\u1ebf t
c\u1ea5 u b\u1eb1 ng th\u00e9p.
1.1.3 Ph\u1ea1 mvi s\u1eed d\u1ee5 ng

Do nh\u1eef ng \u01b0 u \u0111i\u1ec3 m n\u00f3i tr\u00ean, k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c s\u1eed d\u1ee5 ng r\u1ed9 ng r\u00e3i trong m\u1ecd i l\u0129nh v\u1ef1 c x\u00e2y d\u1ef1 ng. Tuy nhi\u00ean, k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p \u0111\u1eb7 c bi\u1ec7 t c\u00f3 \u01b0 u th\u1ebf trong c\u00e1c k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u v\u01b0 \u1ee3 t nh\u1ecbp l\u1edb n, \u0111\u00f2i h\u1ecf i \u0111\u1ed9 thanh m\u1ea3 nh cao, ch\u1ecbu t\u1ea3 i tr\u1ecd ng n\u1eb7 ng v\u00e0 nh\u1eef ng k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u \u0111\u00f2i h\u1ecf i t\u00ednh kh\u00f4ng th\u1ea5 m.

1.2C\u01a1 s\u1edf thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf k\u1ebft c\u1ea5 u th \u00e9p theo Ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9 n thi\u1ebf t
k\u1ebf c\u1ea7 u 22 TCN 272 -05
1.2.1Quan \u0111i\u1ec3 m chung v\u1ec1 thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf
C\u00f4ng t\u00e1c thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf bao g\u1ed3 m vi\u1ec7 c t\u00ednh to\u00e1n nh\u1eb1 m ch\u1ee9 ng minh cho nh\u1eef ng ng \u01b0 \u1edd i c\u00f3 tr\u00e1ch
nhi\u1ec7 m th\u1ea5 y r\u1eb1 ng, m\u1ecd i ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9 n t\u00ednh to\u00e1n v\u00e0 c\u1ea5 u t\u1ea1 o \u0111\u1ec1 u \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c th\u1ecf a m\u00e3n. Quan\u0111i\u1ec3 m
chung \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ea3 m b\u1ea3 o an to\u00e0n trong thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf l\u00e0 s\u1ee9 c kh\u00e1ng c\u1ee7 a v\u1ead t li\u1ec7 u v\u00e0 m\u1eb7 t c\u1eaf t ngang ph\u1ea3 i
kh\u00f4ng nh\u1ecf h\u01a1 n hi\u1ec7 u \u1ee9 ng g\u00e2y ra b\u1edf i c\u00e1c t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9 ng ngo \u00e0i, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0
S\u1ee9 c kh\u00e1ng\ue011 Hi\u1ec7 u \u1ee9 ng t\u1ea3 i tr\u1ecd ng
(1.1)

Khi \u00e1p d\u1ee5 ng nguy\u00ean t\u1eaf c \u0111\u01a1 n gi\u1ea3 n n\u00e0y, \u0111i\u1ec1 u quan tr\u1ecd ng l\u00e0 hai v\u1ebf c\u1ee7 a b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c ph\u1ea3 i \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 trong c \u00f9ng nh\u1eef ng \u0111i\u1ec1 u ki\u1ec7 n. Ch\u1eb3 ng h\u1ea1 n, n\u1ebf u hi\u1ec7 u \u1ee9 ng c\u1ee7 a t\u1ea3 i tr\u1ecd ng l \u00e0 g\u00e2y ra\u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t n\u00e9n tr\u00ean n\u1ec1 n th\u00ec, t\u1ea5 t nhi\u00ean, n\u00f3 ph\u1ea3 i \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c so s\u00e1nh v\u1edb i s\u1ee9 c kh\u00e1ng \u00e9p m\u1eb7 t c\u1ee7 a n\u1ec1 n \u0111\u00f3. N\u00f3i c\u00e1ch kh\u00e1c, s\u1ef1 \u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 c\u1ee7 a b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c ph\u1ea3 i \u0111 \u01b0 \u1ee3 c ti\u1ebf n h\u00e0nh cho m\u1ed9 t \u0111i\u1ec1 u ki\u1ec7 n t\u1ea3 i tr\u1ecd ng ri\u00eang bi\u1ec7t li\u00ean k\u1ebf t s\u1ee9 c kh\u00e1ng v\u00e0 hi\u1ec7 u \u1ee9 ng t\u1ea3 i tr\u1ecd ng v\u1edb i nhau. Li \u00ean k\u1ebf t th\u00f4ng

th\u01b0 \u1edd ng n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c quy \u0111\u1ecbnh b\u1eb1 ngvi\u1ec7 c \u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 hai v\u1ebf \u1edf c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9 t tr\u1ea1 ng th\u00e1i gi\u1edb i h\u1ea1 n.
Tr\u1ea1 ng th\u00e1i gi\u1edb i h\u1ea1 n (TTGH)\u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a nh\u01b0 sau:
Tr\u1ea1 ng th\u00e1i gi\u1edb i h\u1ea1 n l\u00e0 tr\u1ea1 ng th\u00e1i m\u00e0 k\u1ec3 t\u1eeb \u0111\u00f3 tr\u1edf \u0111i, k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u c\u1ea7 u ho\u1eb7 c m\u1ed9 t b\u1ed9 ph\u1ead n
c\u1ee7 a n\u00f3 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n\u0111\u00e1p \u1ee9 ng \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7 u m\u00e0 thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf \u0111\u1eb7 t ra cho n\u00f3.
C\u00e1c v\u00ed d\u1ee5 c\u1ee7 a TTGH cho c\u1ea7 u d\u1ea7 m h\u1ed9 p bao g\u1ed3 m \u0111\u1ed9 v \u00f5ng, n\u1ee9 t, m\u1ecf i, u\u1ed1 n, c\u1eaf t, xo\u1eaf n,
m\u1ea5 t \u1ed5 n \u0111\u1ecbnh (o\u1eb1 n), l\u00fan, \u00e9p m\u1eb7 t v \u00e0 tr\u01b0 \u1ee3 t.
M\u1ed9 t m\u1ee5 c ti\u00eau quan tr\u1ecd ng c\u1ee7 a thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf l\u00e0ng\u0103n ng\u1eeb a \u0111\u1ec3 kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ea1 t t\u1edb i TTGH. Tuy
nhi\u00ean, \u0111\u00f3 kh\u00f4ng ph \u1ea3 i l\u00e0 c\u00e1i \u0111\u00edch duy nh \u1ea5 t. C\u00e1c m\u1ee5 c ti\u00eau kh\u00e1c ph\u1ea3 i \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c xem x\u00e9t v\u00e0 c\u00e2n
\u0111\u1ed1 i trong thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf to\u00e0n th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 ch\u1ee9 c n\u0103ng, th\u1ea9 m m\u1ef9 v\u00e0 t\u00ednh kinh t\u1ebf . S\u1ebd l\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng kinh t\u1ebf n\u1ebf u
thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf m\u1ed9 t c\u1ea7 u m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 b\u1ed9 ph\u1ead n n\u00e0o c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 b\u1ecb ph\u00e1 ho\u1ea1 i bao gi\u1edd . Do \u0111\u00f3, c\u1ea7 n ph\u1ea3 i x\u00e1c
\u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u00e2ul\u00e0 m\u1ee9 c \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ee7 i ro hay x\u00e1c su\u1ea5 t x\u1ea3 y ra ph\u00e1 ho\u1ea1 i c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ch\u1ea5 p nh\u1ead n \u0111 \u01b0 \u1ee3 c. Vi\u1ec7 c x\u00e1c
\u0111\u1ecbnh mi\u1ec1 n an to\u00e0n ch\u1ea5 p nh\u1ead n \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c (s\u1ee9 c kh\u00e1ng c\u1ea7 n ph\u1ea3 i l\u1edb n h \u01a1 n bao nhi\u00eau so v\u1edb i hi\u1ec7 u \u1ee9 ng
c\u1ee7 a t\u1ea3 i tr\u1ecd ng) kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3 i c\u0103n c\u1ee9 v \u00e0o \u00fd ki\u1ebf n c\u1ee7 a m\u1ed9 t c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n m\u00e0 ph\u1ea3 i d\u1ef1 a tr\u00ean kinh
http://www.ebook.edu.vn
B\u00e0i gi\u1ea3 ng K\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p theo Ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9 n 22 TCN 272-05 v\u00e0 AASHTO LRFD
3
nghi\u1ec7 m c\u1ee7 a t\u1ead p th\u1ec3 k\u1ef9 s\u01b0 v\u00e0 c\u01a1 quan nghi\u00ean c \u1ee9 u. Ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9 n thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf c\u1ea7 u 22 TCN 272 -05,
d\u1ef1 a tr\u00ean ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9 n AASHTO LRFD (1998) c\u1ee7 a Hi\u1ec7 p h\u1ed9 i c\u1ea7 u \u0111 \u01b0 \u1edd ng M\u1ef9 , c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u00e1p \u1ee9 ng
\u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7 u tr\u00ean.
1.2.2 S\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3 n c\u1ee7 a qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf

Qua nhi\u1ec1 u n\u0103m, qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf \u0111\u00e3\u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3 n nh\u1eb1 m cung c\u1ea5 p m\u1ed9 t mi\u1ec1 n an to\u00e0n h\u1ee3 p l\u00fd. Qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh n\u00e0y d\u1ef1 a tr\u00ean nh\u1eef ng \u00fd ki\u1ebf n \u0111\u00f3ng g\u00f3p trong ph\u00e2n t\u00edch hi\u1ec7 u \u1ee9 ng c\u1ee7 a t\u1ea3 i tr\u1ecd ng v\u00e0 c\u01b0 \u1edd ng \u0111\u1ed9 c\u1ee7 a v\u1ead t li\u1ec7 u s\u1eed d\u1ee5 ng.

1.2.2.1 Thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf theo \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t cho ph\u00e9p (ASD)
C\u00e1c ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p thi \u1ebf t k\u1ebf \u0111\u1ea7 u ti\u00ean trong l\u1ecbchs\u1eed \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c x\u00e2y d\u1ef1 ng t\u1ead p trung tr \u01b0 \u1edb c h\u1ebf t v\u00e0o

k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u th\u00e9p. Th\u00e9p k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u c\u00f3 \u1ee9 ng x\u1eed tuy\u1ebf n t\u00ednh cho t\u1edb i \u0111i\u1ec3 m ch\u1ea3 y , \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c nh\u1ead n bi\u1ebf t kh\u00e1 r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng v\u00e0 th\u1ea5 p h\u01a1 n m\u1ed9 t c\u00e1ch an to\u00e0n so v\u1edb i c\u01b0 \u1edd ng \u0111\u1ed9 gi\u1edb i h\u1ea1 n c\u1ee7 a v\u1ead t li\u1ec7 u. \u0110\u1ed9 an to \u00e0n trong thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u0111\u1ea3 m b\u1ea3 o b\u1eb1 ng quy \u0111\u1ecb nh l\u00e0\u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t do hi\u1ec7 u \u1ee9 ng c\u1ee7 a t\u1ea3 i tr\u1ecd ng sinh ra ch\u1ec9 b\u1eb1 ng m\u1ed9 t ph\u1ea7 n \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t ch\u1ea3 yfy. Gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb n\u00e0y t\u01b0 \u01a1 ng \u0111\u01b0 \u01a1 ng v\u1edb i vi\u1ec7 c quy \u0111\u1ecbnh m\u1ed9 t h\u1ec7 s\u1ed1 an to\u00e0nF b\u1eb1 ng 2, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0,

\ue03c\ue06d\ue02f\ue000\ue035\ue033\ue04c\ue038\ue032\ue005
\ue00b
\ue033\ue034\ue05a\ue03e\ue000\ue06d\ue038\ue032\ue000\ue03d\ue04a\ue034\ue000\ue03d\ue03b\ue060\ue038\ue032\ue005\ue000
\ue009\ue005\ue00e\ue02d
\ue02d
\ue01c
\ue00f
\ue005
\ue00e
\ue01c
\ue006
\ue006
\ue006
V\u00ecph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf n\u00e0y \u0111\u1eb7 t ra gi\u1edb i h\u1ea1 n v\u1ec1 \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t n \u00ean\u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c bi\u1ebf t \u0111\u1ebf n v\u1edb i t\u00ean g\u1ecd i
thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf theo \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t cho ph\u00e9p(Allowable Stress Design , ASD).
Khi ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p thi \u1ebf t k\u1ebf theo \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t cho ph\u00e9p m\u1edb i ra \u0111\u1edd i, h\u1ea7 u h\u1ebf t c\u00e1c c\u1ea7 u c\u00f3 c\u1ea5 u

t\u1ea1 o gi\u00e0n ho\u1eb7c v\u00f2m. V\u1edb i gi\u1ea3 thi\u1ebf t c\u00e1c c\u1ea5 u ki\u1ec7 n li \u00ean k\u1ebft v\u1edb i nhau b\u1eb1 ng ch\u1ed1t v\u00e0 k\u1ebf t c\u1ea5 u l\u00e0 t\u0129nh \u0111\u1ecbnh, vi\u1ec7 c ph\u00e2n t\u00edch cho th\u1ea5 y c\u00e1c c\u1ea5 u ki\u1ec7 n th\u01b0 \u1edd ng ch\u1ec9 ch\u1ecbu k\u00e9o ho\u1eb7 c ch\u1ecbu n\u00e9n. Di\u1ec7n t\u00edch h\u1eef u hi\u1ec7 u c\u1ea7 n thi\u1ebf t c\u1ee7 a m\u1ed9 t thanh k\u00e9o ch\u1ecbu \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t ph\u00e2n b\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ec1 u \u0111 \u01b0 \u1ee3 c x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u01a1 n gi\u1ea3 n b\u1eb1 ng c\u00e1ch chia l\u1ef1 c k\u00e9oT cho\u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t k\u00e9o cho ph\u00e9pft.

\ue038\ue031\ue03d
\ue033\ue034\ue05a\ue03e\ue000\ue06d\ue038\ue032\ue000\ue03d\ue04a\ue034\ue000\ue03d\ue03b\ue060\ue038\ue032
\ue030\ue034\ue05a\ue038\ue000\ue03d\ue05c\ue02f\ue033\ue000\ue033\ue06c\ue03e\ue000\ue033\ue034\ue05a\ue03e\ue000\ue02f\ue052\ue038\ue000\ue03d\ue033\ue034\ue059\ue03d
\ue06d\ue038\ue032\ue000\ue03c\ue03e\ue053\ue03d\ue000\ue02f\ue033\ue039\ue000\ue03a\ue033\ue055\ue03a
\ue028
\ue011
\ue000
\ue01c
\ue011
\ue006
\u0110\u1ed1 i v\u1edb i c\u1ea5 u ki\u1ec7 n ch\u1ecbu n\u00e9n, \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t cho ph\u00e9pfcph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9 c v\u00e0o \u0111\u1ed9 m\u1ea3 nh c\u1ee7 a c\u1ea5 u ki\u1ec7 n,
tuy nhi\u00ean, c\u01a1 s\u1edf \u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh di\u1ec7 n t\u00edch c\u1ea7 n thi\u1ebf t c\u1ee7 a m\u1eb7 t c\u1eaf t ngang v\u1eab n nh \u01b0 trong c\u1ea5 u ki\u1ec7 n
ch\u1ecbu k\u00e9o; di\u1ec7 n t\u00edch m\u1eb7 t c\u1eaf t c\u1ea7 n thi\u1ebf t b\u1eb1 ng l\u1ef1 c n\u00e9nC chia cho\u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t cho ph\u00e9pfc.
\ue032\ue03b\ue039\ue03c\ue03c
\ue033\ue034\ue05a\ue03e\ue000\ue06d\ue038\ue032\ue000\ue03d\ue04a\ue034\ue000\ue03d\ue03b\ue060\ue038\ue032
\ue030\ue034\ue05a\ue038\ue000\ue03d\ue05c\ue02f\ue033\ue000\ue033\ue06c\ue03e\ue000\ue033\ue034\ue05a\ue03e\ue000\ue02f\ue052\ue038\ue000\ue03d\ue033\ue034\ue059\ue03d
\ue06d\ue038\ue032\ue000\ue03c\ue03e\ue053\ue03d\ue000\ue02f\ue033\ue039\ue000\ue03a\ue033\ue055\ue03a
\ue019
\ue002
\ue000
\ue01c
\ue011
\ue006
Ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p n\u00e0y \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u00e1p d\u1ee5 ng trong nh\u1eef ng n\u0103m s\u00e1u m \u01b0 \u01a1 i c\u1ee7 a th\u1ebf k\u1ef7 19 \u0111\u1ec3 thi\u1ebf t

k\u1ebf th\u00e0nh c\u00f4ng nhi\u1ec1 u c\u1ea7 u gi\u00e0n t\u0129nh \u0111\u1ecbnh nh\u1ecbp l\u1edb n. Ng\u00e0y nay, c\u00e1c c\u1ea7 u t\u01b0 \u01a1 ng t\u1ef1 v\u1eab n \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c x\u00e2y d\u1ef1 ng nh\u01b0 ng ch\u00fang kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n l\u00e0 t\u0129nh \u0111\u1ecbnh v\u00ec ch\u00fang kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n\u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c li\u00ean k\u1ebf t b\u1eb1 ng ch\u1ed1 t. Do \u0111\u00f3, \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t trong c\u00e1c c\u1ea5 u ki\u1ec7 n kh\u00f4ng c \u00f2n ph\u00e2n b\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ec1 u n\u1eef a.

Ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p thi\u1ebf t k\u1ebf theo \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t cho ph\u00e9p c\u0169 ng \u0111 \u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u00e1p d\u1ee5 ng cho d\u1ea7 m ch\u1ecbu u\u1ed1 n.
V\u1edb i gi\u1ea3 thi\u1ebf t m\u1eb7 t c\u1eaf t ph\u1eb3 ng v \u00e0 quan h\u1ec7 \u1ee9 ng su\u1ea5 t-bi\u1ebf n d\u1ea1 ng tuy\u1ebf n t\u00ednh, m\u00f4 \u0111un m\u1eb7 t c\u1eaft (m\u00f4

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