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Fluid Dynamics

Fluid Dynamics

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LECTURES IN ELEMENTARYFLUID DYNAMICS:
Physics, Mathematics and Applications
J. M. McDonough
Departments of Mechanical Engineering and MathematicsUniversity of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0503 
c
1987, 1990, 2002, 2004
 
Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Importance of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Fluids in the pure sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.2 Fluids in technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2 The Study of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.1 The theoretical approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2.2 Experimental uid dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2.3 Computational uid dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.3 Overview of Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 Some Background: Basic Physics of Fluids 11
2.1 The Continuum Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.2 Denition of a Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.2.1 Shear stress induced deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.2.2 More on shear stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.3 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.3.1 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.3.2 Thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.3.3 Mass diusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.3.4 Other uid properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.4 Classication of Flow Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282.4.1 Steady and unsteady ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282.4.2 Flow dimensionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.4.3 Uniform and non-uniform ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.4.4 Rotational and irrotational ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.4.5 Viscous and inviscid ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.4.6 Incompressible and compressible ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.4.7 Laminar and turbulent ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.4.8 Separated and unseparated ows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382.5 Flow Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.5.1 Streamlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.5.2 Pathlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412.5.3 Streaklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44i
 
ii
CONTENTS 
3 The Equations of Fluid Motion 45
3.1 Lagrangian & Eulerian Systems; the Substantial Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453.1.1 The Lagrangian viewpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463.1.2 The Eulerian viewpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473.1.3 The substantial derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473.2 Review of Pertinent Vector Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503.2.1 Gausss theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513.2.2 Transport theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543.3 Conservation of Mass—the continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563.3.1 Derivation of the continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563.3.2 Other forms of the differential continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583.3.3 Simple application of the continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583.3.4 Control volume (integral) analysis of the continuity equation . . . . . . . . . 593.4 Momentum Balance—the Navier–Stokes Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663.4.1 A basic force balance; Newton’s second law of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673.4.2 Treatment of surface forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703.4.3 The NavierStokes equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753.5 Analysis of the NavierStokes Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773.5.1 Mathematical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773.5.2 Physical interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783.6 Scaling and Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803.6.1 Geometric and dynamic similarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803.6.2 Scaling the governing equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823.6.3 Dimensional analysis via the Buckingham
Π
theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873.6.4 Physical description of important dimensionless parameters . . . . . . . . . . 943.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4 Applications of the NavierStokes Equations 97
4.1 Fluid Statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974.1.1 Equations of uid statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 984.1.2 Buoyancy in static uids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044.2 Bernoullis Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064.2.1 Derivation of Bernoulli’s equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064.2.2 Example applications of Bernoulli’s equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1094.3 Control-Volume Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124.3.1 Derivation of the control-volume momentum equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124.3.2 Application of control-volume momentum equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144.4 Classical Exact Solutions to N.–S. Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184.4.1 Couette ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184.4.2 Plane Poiseiulle ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204.5 Pipe Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1224.5.1 Some terminology and basic physics of pipe flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1224.5.2 The HagenPoiseiulle solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254.5.3 Practical Pipe Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1284.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

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