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SpiraxSarco-B12-Pipeline Ancillaries

SpiraxSarco-B12-Pipeline Ancillaries

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Published by danenic

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Published by: danenic on Aug 21, 2009
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08/03/2013

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The Steam and Condensate Loop
12.1.1
Block 12
Pipeline AncillariesIsolation Valves - Linear Movement
Module 12.1
Module 12.1
Isolation Valves -Linear Movement
 
The Steam and Condensate Loop
12.1.2
Block 12
Pipeline AncillariesIsolation Valves - Linear Movement
Module 12.1
Isolation Valves - Linear Movement
Isolation valves are a key component in any fluid system as they are used to stop the flow of fluidinto a particular area of the system. They are also sometimes used to manually control the flowof the fluid. The European standard EN 736-1:1995 distinguishes between isolating, regulating and control valves as follows:
o
Isolating valve
 
-
A valve intended for use only in the closed or fully open position.
o
Regulating valve
 
-
A valve intended for use in any position between closed and fully open.
o
Control valve
 
-
A power-operated device which changes the fluid flowrate in a process controlsystem.Isolation valves are used in a wide variety of different applications where on/off type control isrequired, these include:
o
Diverting process media.
o
Flow isolation to:- Facilitate maintenance- Allow the removal of equipment - Allow the shut down of plant  A multitude of different types and designs of isolation valve have been developed in order tomeet this range of applications and the diverse operating conditions in which they are used.Valves are commonly classified into two groups (see Table 12.1.1), according to the operating motion of the closure device (or obturator):
o
Linear movement valves -
The obturator moves in a straight line. Included in this category aregate valves, globe valves, diaphragm valves and pinch valves. These valves are covered ingreater depth within this module.
o
Rotary movement valves -
The obturator rotates about an axis at right angles to the direction of flow. Ball valves and butterfly valves are the two most important rotary valves associated withsteam applications and are covered in greater depth in Module 12.2, Isolation Valves - RotaryMovement.
Table 12.1.1 Obturator motion in the basic valve typesValve movementLinearRotaryOperating motion
Rotating about an axis at
of the closing device
Straight lineright angles to the direction of flow
(obturator)Direction of flow
At right angles toLongitudinal toThrough theAround the
in the seating area
the operating motionthe operating motionobturator obturatorof the obturatorof the obturator
Basic types
Gate valveGlobe valveBall valvesButterfly valve
Schematic
FlowFlowFlowFlow
 
The Steam and Condensate Loop
12.1.3
Block 12
Pipeline AncillariesIsolation Valves - Linear Movement
Module 12.1
Linear movement valves
Linear movement valves have been developed from the early forms of sluice gates used to controlthe flow of water in irrigation channels. Since then, a large number of different designs and typeshave been developed for use in almost every type of flow application. Although linear movement valves are characterised by straight-line obturator movement, the flow of the fluid may be at right angles to this movement (as in the case of gate valves), or in the same direction, as withglobe valves. The main feature of the linear movement valve is that tight shut-off may be achievedby tightening down the obturator on a threaded stem.
Gate valves
Gate valves are probably the most common valves in use today due to their widespread use indomestic water systems, but it should be noted that their popularity in industry has declined inrecent years. However, they are still used where an uninterrupted flow is required, because thegate fully retracts into the bonnet, creating a minimal pressure drop, when the valve is in anopen position. Gate valves are specifically intended for use in isolation applications. A gate valve consists of four main components, the body, bonnet (or cover), gate and stem. Atypical gate valve is shown in Figure 12.1.1.
Fig. 12.1.1 Typical wedge gate valve
The gate, which slides between the seats, is lifted in a direction at right angles to the flow untilclear of the flow path. The fact that the gate fully retracts into the bonnet ensures that thepressure drop across the valve is low.Gate valves are divided into a number of different classes, depending on the design of the gateand its seating faces.
Solid wedge gate valve
The gate is wedge shaped and it seats on corresponding faces in the valve body. The mechanicaladvantage of the activating thread, together with the wedge angle, enables adequate seating forces to be applied against the fluid pressure without excessive handwheel effort. The seat cansometimes be coated with PTFE to assist a high integrity shut-off. A typical solid wedge gate valveis shown in Figure 12.1.1.
BodyBonnetWedge shaped gateSeat ringGland packingGland followerStemHandwheel

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