1Chemical kineticsPrepared by V. Aditya vardhanadichemadi @ gmail.com
P r e p a r e d b y
V . A D I T Y A V A R D H A N
V A A G D E V I J U N I O R C O L L E G E W A R A N G A L
Chemical kinetics deals with1) Study of rates of reactions2) Factors affecting rate of reaction3) Study of mechanisms of reactions
Rate of reaction :
The rate of reaction is defined as the change in molar concentration of eitherreactants or products in unit time.
change in concentrationrater=time intervalLet ‘dc’ is the decrease in concentration of reactants in a small interval of time ‘dt’ then
( negative sign indicates decrease in concentration )If ‘dx’ is the increase in concentration of products in a small interval of time ‘dt’ then
( positive sign indicates increase in concentration )E.g., For a reaction,AB
In general for a reaction,pP + qQ
rR + sSthe relations between rates of reaction with respect to P,Q,R and S can be written as
Eg., for the reaction,
, the relations can be expressed as
Factors affecting the rate of reaction1) Nature of reactants:
Rate of a reaction depends on the nature of bonding in the reactants. Ioniccompounds react faster than covalent compounds.The reactions between ionic compounds in water occur very fast as they involve only exchange of ions.Eg., AgCl is precipitated out immediately when AgNO
solution is added to NaCl solution.
This reaction involves only exchange of ions as shown below and hence occurs very fast.
Reactions between covalent compounds take place slowly because they require energy for thecleavage of existing bonds.Eg., Following esterification of acetic acid occurs slowly as the breaking of bonds require energy.