Cestodes or tapeworms (class Cestoda, phylum Platy- helminthes) are extremely common parasites of birds. Most species infect the intestine, but a few can be found in the ceca or under the gizzard lining. hey are readily distinguished from other worm parasites (trematodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans) by their segmented appearance. !irds ha"e the most di"erse cestode fauna of any "ertebrate group. #ild birds are often infected with large numbers of cestodes and a"erage pre"alence can be $uite high. %epending on host species, apparently healthy birds may be infected with tens, hundreds, or, in some cases, thousands of cestodes
Cestodiasis, hymenolepididiasis, drepanidotaeniasis, fimbriariasis, gastrotaeniasis.
Cestodes belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes. Most species infect the intestine, a few species infect the ceca, and
infects the gizzard. &ccasionally, cestodes in"ade abnormal sites including the ureters ) and the gizzard muscle. 'dult cestodes are white and translucent when ali"e. hey range from - mm to m long , but many are less than * cm. Cestode bodies consist of a holdfast (scolex), a short nec+, and a body (strobila) made up of repeated units (proglottids) that gi"e it a segmented appearance. ' mature strobila consists of three zones a zone of immature proglottids posterior to the scolex, a zone of sexually mature proglottids with functional reproducti"e systems, and a postreproduc- ti"e (gra"id) zone consisting of proglottids that contain eggs ready for dispersal from the host. hree of the orders recognized '% are represented in the cestode fauna of birds. 'bout /* species belong to the orders etrabothri- idea and Pseudophyllidea and the remainder belong to the Cyclophyllidea . Most cyclophyl- lidean species that infect birds are found in the families 0ymenolepididae, %ilepididae, and %a"aineidae. Molecular e"idence indicates that the
is the most highly deri"ed order.
The Tetraboth- riidea
is its closest relati"e and the
occupies a more basal position. he Pseudophyllidea is polyphyletic with only one family that is found in birds, the %iphyllobothriidae. 1ecent e"idence indicates that the %iphyllobothriidae is independent and ancestral to the Pseudophyllidea, but formal classification of the cestodes has yet to reflect molecular results. hese three groups can be distinguished by morphology of the scolex and mature proglottids . Cyclophyllidean scolices ha"e four muscular suc+ers. Most species also ha"e a rostellum (a muscular organ within the scolex) that can be pro2ected from its apex. he rostellum is usually armed with hoo+s