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CESTODES OF WILD BIRDS.pdf

CESTODES OF WILD BIRDS.pdf

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Published by Sunil
CESTODES OF WILD BIRDS.
CESTODES OF WILD BIRDS.

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Published by: Sunil on Dec 07, 2013
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07/25/2014

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CESTODES
Cestodes or tapeworms (class Cestoda, phylum Platy- helminthes) are extremely common parasites of birds. Most species infect the intestine, but a few can be found in the ceca or under the gizzard lining. hey are readily distinguished from other worm parasites (trematodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans) by their segmented appearance. !irds ha"e the most di"erse cestode fauna of any "ertebrate group. #ild birds are often infected with large numbers of cestodes and a"erage pre"alence can be $uite high. %epending on host species, apparently healthy birds may be infected with tens, hundreds, or, in some cases, thousands of cestodes
SYNONYMS
Cestodiasis, hymenolepididiasis, drepanidotaeniasis, fimbriariasis, gastrotaeniasis.
ETIOLOGY
Cestodes belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes. Most species infect the intestine, a few species infect the ceca, and
 Gastrotaenia
 infects the gizzard. &ccasionally, cestodes in"ade abnormal sites including the ureters ) and the gizzard muscle. 'dult cestodes are white and translucent when ali"e. hey range from - mm to  m long , but many are less than * cm. Cestode bodies consist of a holdfast (scolex), a short nec+, and a body (strobila) made up of repeated units (proglottids) that gi"e it a segmented appearance. ' mature strobila consists of three zones a zone of immature proglottids posterior to the scolex, a zone of sexually mature proglottids with functional reproducti"e systems, and a postreproduc- ti"e (gra"id) zone consisting of proglottids that contain eggs ready for dispersal from the host. hree of the  orders recognized '% are represented in the cestode fauna of birds. 'bout /* species belong to the orders etrabothri- idea and Pseudophyllidea and the remainder belong to the Cyclophyllidea . Most cyclophyl- lidean species that infect birds are found in the families 0ymenolepididae, %ilepididae, and %a"aineidae. Molecular e"idence indicates that the
Cyclophyl- lidea
 is the most highly deri"ed order.
The Tetraboth- riidea
 is its closest relati"e and the
Pseudophyllidea
 occupies a more basal position. he Pseudophyllidea is polyphyletic with only one family that is found in birds, the %iphyllobothriidae. 1ecent e"idence indicates that the %iphyllobothriidae is independent and ancestral to the Pseudophyllidea, but formal classification of the cestodes has yet to reflect molecular results. hese three groups can be distinguished by morphology of the scolex and mature proglottids . Cyclophyllidean scolices ha"e four muscular suc+ers. Most species also ha"e a rostellum (a muscular organ within the scolex) that can be pro2ected from its apex. he rostellum is usually armed with hoo+s
 
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and the number, shape, and size of these are of taxo- nomic importance. etrabothriidean scolices ha"e four large leafli+e suc+ers called bothridia and lac+ a rostel- lum. 3colices of the diphyllobothriids ha"e one dorsal and one "entral groo"e (bothria) instead of suc+ers or bothridia.
MORPOLOGIC!L COMP!RISON O" SCOLICES !ND M!T#RE PROGLOTTIDS O" !D#LT DIPYLLO$OTRIID% TETR!$OTRIID% !ND CYCLOPYLLIDE!N CESTODES&
 Cestodes ha"e complex reproducti"e systems. Mature proglottids of these three groups can be distinguished by the type and location of the "itelline (yol+) glands, the structure of the uterus, the position of the genital pore, and by the presence or absence of a uterine pore
! partial list o' cestode species that ha(e bee) reported to cause patholo*y% disease% or +ortality i) ,ild birds
. 
Parasite Distributio) ost order Source !D#LT CESTODES O
RDER
C
YCLOPYLLIDE!
 "a+ily y+e)olepididae
Gastrotaenia cygni
', 3' ' # #
Gastrotaenia dogieli
4u, 's ' 4 4
Microsomacanthus parvula
4u, 's, ' '
5
 
Dicranotaenia coronula
4u, 's, 'f, '6, Ch, 7al, 7r C, %5
Hispaniolepis falcata
'f, 's 7r #
"a+ily Da(ai)eidae
Otiditaenia conoideis
'f, 4u, 's 7r C
Otiditaenia macqueeni
'f, 's 7r C
Raillietina
 sp.
 
' 7al #
"a+ily Dilepididae
Choanotaenia
C ', Co, 8, 7al6, C, %5
infundibulum
7r, Pa, 3t #
Parorchites zederi
'ntarctica Pr #
"a+ily Gryporhy)chidae
 
Paradilepis delachaui
'f, 's Pe #
 
 3
0ost orders ', 'nseriformes9 Ca, Caprimulgiformes9 Ch, Charadriiformes9 Ci, Ciconiiformes9 Co, Columbiformes9 8, 8alconiformes9 7al, 7alliformes9 7a", 7a"iiformes9 7r, 7ruiformes9 Pa, Passeriformes9 Pe, Pelecaniformes9 Ph, Phoenicopteriformes9 Pi, Piciformes9 Po, Podicipediformes9 Pr, Procellariiformes9 3tr, 3trigiformes9. 'steris+s when present indicate the ma2or host order(s) of a particular species. 3ource of material #, wild9 4, experimental9 C, capti"e9 %, domestic9 5, source un+nown. %istribution ', orth 'merica9 3', 3outh 'merica9 4u, 4urope9 's, 'sia9 C, Cosmopolitan9 'f, 'frica.
DLPYLLO$OTRIID!E
 
wo intermediate hosts are re$uired to complete %i- phyllobothriid life cycles . he first host is a copepod and the second is a "ertebrate, usually a fish. he exception is
 !pirometra
 whose species use all "ertebrates except fish as second intermediate hosts.
Paradilepis scolecina
C Pe #
Paradilepis
 sp.
 
's Pe #
"a+ily !+abiliidae
!chistotaenia scolopendra
3' Po #
!chistotaenia srivastavi
' Po #
!chistotaenia tenuicirrus
' Po #, 4
"a+ily Paruteri)idae
 "scometra choriotidis
's 7r C
Metroliasthes lucida
' 7al #
Cyclophyllidean
 sp.
 
' "ia 'f Ph C
O
RDER
T
ETR!$OTRIIDE!
 
#etrabothrius s$oogi
's Pr #
#etrabothrius
 sp.
 
'u Pr #
Parasite %istribution 0ost order 3ource
"a+ily Diphyllobothriidae
!chistocephalus solidus
C ', Ch6, Ci, Co, #
 
8, 7al, 7a", 7r, Pa, Pe, Po, Pr # #
%igula intestinalis
C ', Ci, Ch6, 8, # Pe6, Po6, # 7a"6, Pa
L!R.!L CESTODES "a+ily Mesocestoididae
Mesocestoides
 sp.
 
C Mammals # # #
"a+ily Diphyllobothriidae
%igula intestinalis
C 3ee abo"e C
!pirometra
 sp.
 
C Mammals #
Represe)tati(e li'e cycles o' cyclophyllidea) a)d diphyllobothriid cestodes& Lar(al sta*es o' the Gryporhy)chidae

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