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Whittaker E.T. - On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential FunctionsRatings: (0)|Views: 522|Likes: 11

Published by wfto

Electromagnetic field as a combination of two scalar field

Electromagnetic field as a combination of two scalar field

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/19013344/Whittaker-E-T-On-an-Expression-of-the-Electromagnetic-Field-Due-to-Electrons-by-Means-of-Two-Scalar-Potential-Functions

05/11/2014

text

original

367

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO THE ELECTRONS.

()()()0,

y x z

vvvtxyz

ρρ ρρ

∂∂ ∂∂+ + + =∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

,0,

yy xx zz

dhdhdh xyzxyz

ρ

∂ ∂∂ ∂∂ ∂+ + = + + =∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society

, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367-372.(Retyped for readability, with same page breaks).

ON AN EXPRESSION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDDUE TO ELECTRONS BY MEANS OF TWO SCALARPOTENTIAL FUNCTIONS

By E. T. Whittaker.

[Received 11 November, 1903, -- Read 12

th

November, 1903]

1.

Object of Paper

The object of the present paper is to show that when any number of electronsare moving in any manner, the functions which define the resulting electrodynamicsfield, namely, the three components of dielectric displacement in the aether and thethree components of the magnetic force at every point of the field, can be expressedin terms of the derivates of two scalar potential functions. (Previous writers haveexpressed them in terms of a scalar potential function and a vector potential function,which are equivalent to

four

scalar potential functions.) These two scalar potentialfunctions are explicitly evaluated in terms of the charges and co-ordinates of theelectrons. It is then shown that from these results the general functional form of anelectrodynamic disturbance due to electrons can be derived.2.

Explanation of Notation, and Summary of previously known Results.

The work of previous writers, so far as it concerns the present investigationand explains the notation used, may be briefly summarized as follows: --Let

D

be the volume density of electricity at any place and time, and let

v

x

,

v

y

,

v

z

be the components of its velocity, and

c

the velocity of light in the aether. Let

d

x

,

d

y

,

d

z

be the three components of the dielectric displacement in the aether, and

h

x

,

h

y

,

h

z

the three components of the magnetic force. Then the fundamental equations of electrodynamics may be written in Lorentz’s form (the units being suitably chosen):4-1

368

Mr. E. T. Whittaker[Nov. 12, 1903]

,,

yy xx zz x

hd dhhd cvc yztyzt

ρ

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂∂ ∂− = + − = − ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

,,

yy xx zz y

dhhd hd cvc zxtzxt

ρ

∂ ∂∂ ∂∂ ∂ − = + − = − ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

,.

yy xx zz z

hd hd dhcvc xytxyt

ρ

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂∂ ∂− = + − = − ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

1,,

y x z zx

aaadhctxyz

φ

∂∂ ∂∂= − − = −∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

222222222

,,

x xx

acccacvtt

φφ ρ ρ

∂∂∇ − = − ∇ − = −∂ ∂

22222222

,,

y z yyzz

aacacvcacvtt

ρ ρ

∂∂∇ − = − ∇ − = −∂ ∂

10.

y x z

aaa xyzct

φ

∂∂ ∂ ∂+ + + =∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

1(,,,),(,,,),4cos(,)4cos(,)

x x

vece xyztaxyzt crrvvrcrrvvr

φπ π

= =+ +

∑ ∑

In place of

d

x

,

d

y

,

d

z

,

h

x

,

h

y

,

h

z

, we can define the field by a scalar potentialfunction

N

and three functions

a

x

,

a

y

,

a

z

, which are usually regarded as the threecomponents of a vector potential. The quantities

d

x

,

d

y

,

d

z

,

h

x

,

h

y

,

h

z

are given interms of

N

, a

x

,

a

y

,

a

z

by the equationsand four similar, equations

d

y

,

d

z

,

h

y

,

h

z

.The scalar potential and the three components of the vector potential satisfythe system of equationsFor the fundamental case, namely, that in which the field is due to any numberof electrons moving in any way, the scalar potential and the three components of thevector potential are given by the equationsand two similar equations for

a

y

and

a

z

, where

e

is the charge of a typical electron,

r

isits distance from the point (

x

,

y

,

z

),

v

is its velocity, (

v

x

,

v

y

,

v

z

) the components of

v

,(

v

,

r

) the angle between the direction of

v

and

r

, and the bars over the letters meanthat the position of the electron considered is that which it occupied at a timeand the summation is taken over all the electrons. We shall assume

;

trc

−

throughout this paper that the velocities of all the electrons are less than the velocityof radiation.3.

Introduction and Evaluation of the two Scalar Potentials.

Now let denote the position of the electron

e

at time

t

; and

(),(),()

xtytzt

′ ′ ′

let be used to denote so that are known(.../369)

x

′

(),

xtrc

′−

,,

xyz

′ ′ ′

4-2

369

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO THE ELECTRONS.SER. 2. VOL. 1. NO. 843.

{ }

1()()()()

xyz

rr rxxxxvyyvzzv xcx

∂ ∂′ ′ ′ ′= − − − − + − + −∂ ∂

().cos(,)

rcxx xcrrvvr

′∂ −=∂ +

1231

()().cos(,)

xyz

xxfvfvfv f f xcrrvvr

′− + +∂= − +∂ +

123

().cos(,)

xyz

cfvfvfv f tcvvr

+ +∂=∂ +

{ }

12

122

(,,,)sinh,4()()

ezzFxyzt xxyy

π

−

′−=′ ′− + −

∑

1

(,,,)tan,4

eyyGxyzt xx

π

−

′−=′−

∑

{ }

12

22

(,,,)log()(),4

e xyztxxyy

ψ π

′ ′= − + −

∑

,4cos(,),4cos(,)1,4cos(,)11.4cos(,)

x y z

vGe xycrrvvr vGe yxcrrvvr vFe zctcrrvvr Fecctzcrrvvr

ψ πψ πψ πψ π

∂ ∂− =∂ ∂ +∂ ∂+ =∂ ∂ +∂ ∂+ =∂ ∂ +∂ ∂+ =∂ ∂ +

∑∑∑∑

functions of when the motions of the electrons are known; we have

,,,,

xyzt

and therefore

2222

()()(),

rxxyyzz

′ ′ ′= − + − + −

orMore generally, if

f

be any function of the there quantitiesand if

f

1

,

f

2

,

f

3

denote its derivates with respect to these three

,,,

xxyyzz

′ ′ ′− − −

arguments respectively, we easily find thatSimilar equations hold for and while is given by the

fy

∂ ∂

,

fz

∂ ∂

ft

∂ ∂

equationNow define functions

F

,

G

,

R

by the equationswhere the summation is taken over all the electrons. Using the formulae just obtainedfor the derivates of a function of the kind

f

, we find that4-3

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