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forging.pdf

forging.pdf

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mechanical
mechanical

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Published by: loveguru2512 on Aug 23, 2009
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05/11/2014

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FORGING
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LISTS OF FORGING MANUFACTURERS
 
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Forging Equipment – Johnson Forging Equipment Company
 
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Forging Equipment – SIFCO Indurtries, Inc. - Forge Group
 
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Forging Equipment – Delta forging Services, Inc
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Process:
 
Forging is a metal forming process used to produce large quantities of identical parts, as in the manufacture of automobiles, and to improve the mechanical properties of the metal being forged, as in aerospace parts or military equipment. Thedesign of forged parts is limited when undercuts or cored sections are required. Allcavities must be comparatively straight and largest at the mouth, so that the forging diemay be withdrawn. The products of forging may be tiny or massive and can be made of steel (automobile axles), brass (water valves), tungsten (rocket nozzles), aluminum(aircraft structural members), or any other metal. More than two thirds of forging in theUnited States is concentrated in four general areas: 30 percent in the aerospace industry,20 percent in automotive and truck manufacture, 10 percent in off-highway vehicles, and10 percent in military equipment. This process is also used for coining, but with slowcontinuous pushes.The forging metal forming process has been practiced since the Bronze Age. Hammeringmetal by hand can be dated back over 4000 years ago. The purpose, as it still is today,was to change the shape and/or properties of metal into useful tools. Steel was hammeredinto shape and used mostly for carpentry and farming tools. An ax made easy work of cutting down trees and metal knives were much more efficient than stone cutting tools.Hunters used metal-pointed spears and arrows to catch prey. Blacksmiths used a forgeand anvil to create many useful instruments such as horseshoes, nails, wagon tires, andchains.Militaries used forged weapons to equip their armies, resulting in many territories beingwon and lost with the use and strength of these weapons. Today, forging is used to createvarious and sundry things. The operation requires no cutting or shearing, and is merely areshaping operation that does not change the volume of the material.
Forging:
Forging changes the size and shape, but not the volume, of a part. The changeis made by force applied to the material so that it stretches beyond the yield point. Theforce must be strong enough to make the material deform. It must not be so strong,however, that it destroys the material. The yield point is reached when the material will2
 
reform into a new shape. The point at which the material would be destroyed is calledthe fracture point.In forging, a block of metal is deformed under impact or pressure to form the desiredshape. Cold forging, in which the metal is not heated, is generally limited to relativelysoft metals. Most metals are hot forged; for example, steel is forged at temperatures between 2,100
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F and 2,300
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F (1,150
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C to 1,260
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C). These temperatures causedeformation, in which the grains of the metal elongate and assume a fibrous structure of increased strength along the direction of flow. (See Figure)Figure - Flow lines in a forged part Normally this results in metallurgical soundness and improved mechanical properties.Strength, toughness, and general durability depend upon the way the grain is placed.Forgings are somewhat stronger and more ductile along the grain structure than across it.The feature of greatest importance is that along the grain structure there is a greater ability to resist shock, wear, and impact than across the grain. Material properties alsodepend on the heat-treating process after forging. Slow cooling in air may normalizeworkpieces, or they can be quenched in oil and then tempered or reheated to achieve thedesired mechanical properties and to relieve any internal stresses. Good forging practicemakes it possible to control the flow pattern resulting in maximum strength of thematerial and the least chances of fatigue failure. These characteristics of forging, as well3

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