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Characteristics of Opamp

Characteristics of Opamp

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Published by majorhone

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Published by: majorhone on Aug 23, 2009
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03/28/2013

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1
1. CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS OFOPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
The characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier are described first, and thecharacteristics and performance limitations of a practical operational amplifier aredescribed next. There is a section on classification of operational amplifiers andsome notes on how to select an operational amplifier for an application.
1.1 IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER1.1.1 Properties of An Ideal Operational Amplifier
The characteristics or the properties of an ideal operational amplifier are:i.Infinite Open Loop Gain,ii.Infinite Input Impedance,iii.Zero Output Impedance,iv.Infinite Bandwidth,v.Zero Output Offset, andvi.Zero Noise Contribution.The opamp, an abbreviation for the operational amplifier, is the most importantlinear IC. The circuit symbol of an opamp shown in Fig. 1.1. The three terminalsare: the non-inverting input terminal, the inverting input terminal and the outputterminal. The details of power supply are not shown in a circuit symbol.
1.1.2 Infinite Open Loop Gain
From Fig.1.1, it is found that v
o
= - A
o
× v
i
, where `A
o
' is known as the open-loopgain of the opamp. Let v
o
be -10 Volts, and A
o
be 10
5
. Then v
i
is 100
:
V. Here
 
2
the input voltage is very small compared to the output voltage. If A
o
is very large,v
i
is negligibly small for a finite v
o
. For the ideal opamp, A
o
is taken to beinfinite in value. That means, for an ideal opamp v
i
= 0 for a finite v
o
. Typicalvalues of A
o
range from 20,000 in low-grade consumer audio-range opamps tomore than 2,000,000 in premium grade opamps ( typically 200,000 to 300,000).
The first property of an ideal opamp: Open Loop Gain A
o
= infinity.1.1.3 Infinite Input Impedance and Zero Output Impedance
An ideal opamp has an infinite input impedance and zero output impedance. Thesketch in Fig. 1.2 is used to illustrate these properties. From Fig. 1.2, it can beseen that i
in
is zero if R
in
is equal to infinity.
The second property of an ideal opamp: R
in
= infinity or i
in
=0.
From Fig. 1.2, we get thatIf the output resistance R
o
is very small, there is no drop in output voltage due tothe output resistance of an opamp.
The third property of an ideal opamp: R
o
= 0.
 
3
1.1.4 Infinite Bandwidth
An ideal opamp has an infinite bandwidth. A practical opamp has a limitedbandwidth, which falls far short of the ideal value. The variation of gain withfrequency has been shown in Fig. 1.3, which is obtained by modelling the opampwith a single dominant pole, whereas the practical opamp may have more than asingle pole.The asymptotic log-magnitude plot in Fig. 1.3 can be expressed by a first-orderequation shown below.It is seen that two frequencies, w
H
and w
T
, have been marked in the frequencyresponse plot in Fig. 1.3.. Here w
T
is the frequency at which the gain A(jw) isequal to unity. If A(jw
T
) is to be equal to unity,Since A
o
is very large, it means that w
T
= A
o
* w
H
.

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