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HVAC Pulley Math

HVAC Pulley Math

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Published by William Greco
The basis of this essay is to algebraically combine Pulley and Fan Laws into single
equations. Except for direct drives, fans and blower sets have a driver pulley on the motor shaft and a driven pulley on the fan shaft with belt or belts to convey power to the fan. The mathematical relationships between motor and fan speeds, driver and driven pulley diameters,
horsepower and fan static pressures will be investigated in this report. Also equations will
be developed for fan operation when dealing with changing capacity requirements. Fan laws
will be substituted and rearranged against pulley laws to predict fan performance in relation
to modifying characteristic variables.

The basis of this essay is to algebraically combine Pulley and Fan Laws into single
equations. Except for direct drives, fans and blower sets have a driver pulley on the motor shaft and a driven pulley on the fan shaft with belt or belts to convey power to the fan. The mathematical relationships between motor and fan speeds, driver and driven pulley diameters,
horsepower and fan static pressures will be investigated in this report. Also equations will
be developed for fan operation when dealing with changing capacity requirements. Fan laws
will be substituted and rearranged against pulley laws to predict fan performance in relation
to modifying characteristic variables.

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Published by: William Greco on Aug 23, 2009
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01/09/2013

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HVAC Pulley Math Page 1 of 18By William Grecow2gre@verizon.netWarrington, Pa.8/20/09
Executive Summary
The basis of this essay is to algebraically
combine
Pulley and Fan Laws into singleequations. (Note: Pulley pitch diameter and pulley diameter are used interchangeably,sheave and pulley will also be used interchangeably.)
Main
Except for direct drives, fans and blower sets have a driver pulley on the motor shaftand a driven pulley on the fan shaft with belt or belts to convey power to the fan. Themathematical relationships between motor and fan speeds, driver and driven pulley diameters,horsepower and fan static pressures will be investigated in this report. Also equations willbe developed for fan operation when dealing with changing capacity requirements. Fan lawswill be substituted and rearranged against pulley laws to predict fan performance in relationto modifying characteristic variables.Pulley Equation:
DPMMPRRFP1equation-1DPFwhere:RFP1Existing RPM of fan pulleyDPMDiameter of motor pulleyDPFDiameter of fan pulleyMPRRPM of motor pulley
A change in pulley sizes will affect the performance of the fan rpm which in turn willinfluence characteristics of all the other variables of the fans operation.
Fan Laws
The Fan Laws are the basic proportional analogy between fan RPM, CFM, Total Pressure developed bythe fan, and required Brake Horsepower. They are most useful for calculatingthe impact of extrapolating from an existing fan performance to a new fan performance.
Fan Horsepower with respect to RPM
3
HP1RFP1equation-2HP2RFP2where:HP1exisitng brake horsepowerHP2new brake horse powerRFP1RPM of fan with HP1exisitng brake horsepowerRFP2RPM of fan with HP2new brake horsepower
 
HVAC Pulley Math Page 2 of 18By William Grecow2gre@verizon.netWarrington, Pa.8/20/09
Solving for RFP1
    
33
3333RFP1HP2333RFP2HP133DIVIDE BOTHSIDES BY HP2CUBE ROOT OFBOTH
RFP1HP1RFP2HP2RFP1HP1HP2RFP2RFP1HP1cross multiply HP2RFP1HP1RFP2HP2RFP2
 
HP2RFP1HP1RFP2HP2HP2
   
33333SIDES33311n3n131313
HP1RFP2HP1RFP2RFP1RFP1HP2HP2HP1RFP2RFP1HP2BABRFP2AAand ARFP1HP1CCHP2RFP2RFP1HP1(equation-3)HP2
 
RFP1 from equation-1 = RFP1 from equation-3
Solving for HP2:
 
1313
131311HP1RFP2DPF33HP2DPMMPR1133divide byDPMMPR13
HP1RFP2DPMMPRBABACCDPFHP2HP2DPMMPRHP1RFP2DPFHP2DPMMPRHP1RFP2DPFDPMMPRDPMMPRHP1RFP2DPFHP2DPMMP
CROSS MULTIPLY n n
a b a b
  
3
equation-4R
 
HVAC Pulley Math Page 3 of 18By William Grecow2gre@verizon.netWarrington, Pa.8/20/09
313
HP1RFP2DPFHP2equation-4DPMMPR
 
Equation-4 must now be modified to conform with the physical relationships of existing pulley diameters versus modified new pulley diameters. The RFP2 variable whichindicates the new RPM of the fan must have a substitution of DPF2, DPM2 and MPR2.DPF becomes DPF1, DPM becomes DPM1 and MPR becomes MPR1.
313
DPM2MPR2HP1DPF1DPF2HP2equation-5DPM1MPR1
where:HP2 = New brake horsepowerHP1 = Existing brake horsepowerDPM1 = Existing diameter of motor pulleyDPF1 = Existing diameter of fan pulleyMPR1 = RPM of motor pulleyDPM2 = New or existing diameter of motor pulleyDPF2 = New or existing diameter of fan pulleyMPR2 = New RPM of motor pulley (in cases where a VFD is involved the existingmotor rpm will not equal the new motor rpm)
Example-1: (Pulley Change motor speed constant- Find New Horsepower)
An existing fan has a motor pulley with an 8 inch diameter, a fan pulley of 6 inch diameter,and is operating at 3.7 brake horsepower. The motor is running at 1,740 RPM and is not ona variable frequency drive. The fan pulley is being replaced with a 5 inch diameter pulley, thenew brake horsepower can be calculated using equation-5.
new fanrpm
The existing fan rpm with the 6" pulley is:81740817402,340 rpm2,784 rpm65
313
817403.765HP26.4 Brake Horsepower81740
The new brake horsepower is now 6.4 due to the increase in fan rpm.

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