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After this session you will be able
To prepare, initiate, observe, and understand fermentation,out of all the Natural Sciences, modern biology is the mostdiversified exhibiting a varied array of subdisciplines. Thisdiversity can be attributed to the introduction of otherscientific disciplines such as physics, chemistry, andmathematics. This has resulted in a more profounddescription of life at the cellular and nuclear level. Thenewly acquired knowledge in the field of biology hasresulted in great contributions to the health and welfare of man.
Know many areas of application of biotechnology. Thetable below lists the main ones from which all others stem:
This is, historically, the most important area inbiotechnology. There has been extensive development inprogress with new products such as medically importantdrugs, solvents, protein enhanced foods, etc. This alsoincludes research on different types of fermentationdesigns to optimize the process.
This area is used for the catalysis of extremely specificchemical reactions, for the immobilization of enzymes, andto create specific molecular converters (bioreactors).Products formed include L-amino acids, high fructosesyrup, semi-synthetic penicillins, starch and cellulosehydrolysis, etc.
This has a long array of historical importance, but nowemphasis is on the coupling of this field with theconservation and recycling of resources. Examples wouldinclude foods, fertilizers, biological fuels.
Problems like pollution control, removing toxic wastes,recovery of metals from mining wastes and low grade ores,are just some of the categories that fall under this field.
5)Renewable Resources Technology
The use of renewable energy sources, in particular lignocelluloseto generate new sources of chemical raw material and energy -ethanol, methane, and hydrogen.Each of these fields utilizes knowledge from Biochemistry,Genetics, Chemistry, Applied Microbiology, Chemical andProcess Engineering, and Mathematics and Computer Technol-ogy. Also, these areas of biotechnology attempt to use the bestpossible catalysts in optimum environment to carry out variouschemical reactions. In the pages to come, some important areasof biotechnology will be considered in order to achieve a broadoverall understanding of basic principles.
Define Fermentation ?
: Fermentation is a common process in bothnatural and man-made environments. In fermentation, yeastcells metabolize sugars, producing carbon dioxide and alcohol.Some products which result from fermentation include, amongmany others: alcoholic beverages, bread, soy sauce, sauerkraut,pickles, and kimchee.Observing fermentation provides an interesting platform fromwhich to study and understand chemical and biologicalprocesses.
is defined as an energy-yielding metabolicpathway that involves no net change in oxidation state.Anaerobic glycolysis is a type of fermentation. The lactic acidfermentation (conversion of glucose to lactate) is important inthe manufacture of cheese. Another important fermentationinvolves cleavage of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and CO2, thatfollows: with the acetaldehyde then reduced to ethanol byalcohol dehydrogenase in the reactionAcetaldehyde + NADH + H
<-> Ethanol + NAD
As carried out by yeasts, this fermentation generates the alcoholin alcoholic beverages. alcoholic fermentation
What is necessary to begin fermentation ?
All that is necessary to begin fermentation is to mix theactivated yeast and the cooled, pH-adjusted mash in thefermentation tank. Aside from the considerations of pH asdiscussed earlier, the most important thing during the fermen-tation is temperature control. When the fermentation begins,carbon dioxide gas will be given off. At the height of fermenta-tion, the mash will literally “boil” from the carbon dioxideproduced. The reaction also produces some heat. The optimumtemperature for the fermentation process is between 70-85 degF., and it is desirable not to let the temperature go much above90-95 deg F. Cooling is readily done with the use of ice bags, asdiscussed earlier, or by the use of a cooling coil. A less desirablemethod of controlling temperature is to dilute the mash.The actual time required to ferment a mash varies with thematerial being fermented, the pH, temperature, and severalother factors. It can take from one to four days. You will knowthat the fermentation is complete when the mash ceasesbubbling and the yeast cake, which forms on top, sinks to thebottom. At this point, the fermented liquor is known as “beer”and it is ready to be distilled.It is advantageous to distill the beer as soon as possible.Occasionally, if it is allowed to sit, it will turn to vinegar.Vinegar is alcohol that has been oxidized to acetic acid. Certainenzymes present after fermentation act as catalysts and allow anyair present in the mash solution to react with the alcohol toform acetic acid. In fact, if you want to produce vinegar, all you
UNIT 2FERMENTATION PROCESS:GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OFFERMENTATION PROCESS
LESSON 8FERMENTATION PROCESS