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Introduction to Bio Process

Introduction to Bio Process

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01/07/2013

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© Copy Right: Rai University
2.203 1
BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING
UNIT IBASIC CONCEPTS OF BIOPROCESSINTRODUCTION TO BIOPROCESS
LESSON 1INTRODUCTION TO BIOPROCESS
Objectives
After this session you will be able to
Understand the term Bioprocess
Working of the fermentors
Introduction to Bioprocess
When our early ancestors made alcoholic beverages, they used abioprocess.The combination of yeast cells and nutrients (cereal grains)formed a fermentation system in which the organisms con-sumed the nutrients for their own growth and producedby-products (alcohol and carbon dioxide gas) that helped tomake the beverage. Bioprocess technology is an extension of ancient techniques for developing useful products by takingadvantage of natural biological activities such as production of enzymes (used, for example, in food processing and wastemanagement) and antibiotics. Use of living material offersseveral advantages over conventional chemical methods of production. They usually require lower temperature, pressure,and pH. They can use renewable resources as raw materials andgreater quantities can be produced with less energy consump-tion. With the development of automated and computerizedequipment, it is becoming much easier to accurately monitorreaction conditions and thus increase production efficiency. Asadvances in bioprocess technology, particularly separation andpurification techniques, are made, commercial firms will be ableto economically produce these substances in large amounts, andthus make them available for use in medical research, foodprocessing, agriculture, pharmaceutical development, wastemanagement, and numerous other fields of science andindustry.Knowledge of the metabolism of microbial cells is indispens-able for (a) the optimization of bioreactor operation, (b) theselection of the best microorganism for a given biochemicalconversion, (c) targeted or evolutionary improvement of anexisting microorganism and (d) design (metabolic engineering)of microorganisms with new reactivities and/or morphology.This helps improve the efficiency of bioprocesses by focusingon microbial performance.Growth and production characteristics of the microorganismsor cell culture must be measured as a function of environment.Shake flasks of 250 ml to 1 liter capacity are used for theseexperiments. Varying conditions for optimal growth of microorganisms and their productivity are medium composi-tion, pH, temperature and other environmental conditions.How is the working of the bench top fermenter which is also abioreactor works?
Bench Top Fermenter
(bioreactor)This is the first step of the scale up process for large-scaleoperation of the bioprocess for which optimum conditions forthe growth are established in the shake flask experiments above.The bench top fermenter usually is of 1 to 2 liter capacity. It isequipped with instruments for measuring and adjusting
Temperature
pH
Dissolve O
2
Concentration of substrate
Concentration of product
Agitator speed
Other process variablesProcess can be more closely controlled than in Shake flask experiments. Information is collected on
O
2
requirements of the cells
Sensitivity of the cells to shear
Foaming characteristicsMany proteins and polymers produced will cause extensivefoaming. The main concern of this study is whether optimalconditions can be provided or not for the cell growth in areactor and their determination. Information gathered fromthis study is used for the further scale-up of the bioreactor. Theinformation obtained includes:
Mass transfer coefficients (concentration gradients)
Mixing time (a parameter used for determining mixingefficiency)
Gas hold up
= Vg————Vg + V
L
Vg is the volume of gas bubbles in the reactorV
L
is the volume of liquidPower number P—————r N
3
D
5
P is the power requiredr is the viscosityN
i3
 
is the stirrer speedD
i5
is the impeller diameter
Impeller shear rateIt is also decided whether the bioreactor must be operated forbatch process or continuous process. At this stage, thecommercial viability of the process is also evaluated.

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