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nota pendek

nota pendek

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Published by Beevy GB

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Published by: Beevy GB on Aug 24, 2009
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05/12/2015

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FORM 1CHAPTER 1
Mass
Mass is the quantity of matter in an object.
SI unit: Kilogram (kg)
Lever balance
Weight
Weight is the pull of gravity on an object
SI unit:Newton (N)
Spring balance
Basic physical quantities & S.I.Physical quantitiesSI Unit
LengthMetre (m)MassKilogram (kg)TimeSecond (s)TemperatureKelvin (K)Electric currentAmpere (A)
Measuring tools
Length :
Measuring tape
Metre rule
CalipersMeasure area of irregular shape:
Graph paper Measure volume of liquid:
Measuring cylinder 
Burette
Pipette
CHAPTER 2
Structure of cell and its functionUnicellular organismPlant :
Chlamydomonas
Yeast
EuglenaAnimal :
Amoeba
Paramecium
PlasmodiumMulticellular organisms:Plant :
Spirogyra
Sea weed
GrassAnimal :
Eagle
Squirrel
AntCell organisationCell
Tissue
Organ
System
OrganismSystem and functionSkeleton system:
Protects internal organs and gives support tothe bodyBlood circulation system:
Transport dissolved food, gases, and wastematerials Nervous system:
Conveys nerve impulses and reacts tostimuliReproductive system:
Produces reproductive cellsRespiratory system:
Enables the exchange of gases with thesurroundingsExcretory system:
Removes wastes materials from the bodyDigestive system:
Breaks up food into simples form to beabsorbed and used by the bodyMuscular system:
Moves the parts of the body
1
Nucleus
Cell control centre
Cell membrane
Controls the entry and exitof materials from thecell
Cytoplasm
Stores dissolved materials
 
Chloroplast
Produces chlorophyll
Vacuole
Contains water andsolute
Cell wall
Maintains the shapeof the cell
 
CHAPTER 3
What is matter?
Matter is everything that has mass andoccupies space
Matter is made up of tiny particlesMatter exist in either:Solid:Liquid :Gas :
Particles vibratein their positionParticles movegliding amongeach other Particles movefast and randomly
Density:
Density is the mass per unit volume of asubstance.
Unit : g/cm
3
Density formula:
CHAPTER 4
Basic resources of earth :
Water 
Air 
Soil
Living things
Minerals
Fossil fuelsClassification of matter:Matter is classified into:
1.
Element
Substance which is made up of one type of  particle only
2.
Compound
Substance that is made up of two or moretypes of elements.
Chemically combined
Separation method : electrolysis
3.
Mixture
Substance that consist of two or moresubstance
Joined physically
Separation method :
o
Distillation
o
Filtration
CHAPTER 5
Contents of air:
 Nitrogen:78%
Oxygen:21%
Carbon dioxide:0.03%
Inert gases:0.9%
Microorganisms
Water vapour 
DustProperties of oxygen:
Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas
slightly on water 
no effect on litmus paper 
supports combustion and respirationConfirmation test for Oxygen:Glowing wooden splinter:
Presence of oxygen causes the glowingwooden splinter to ignites.Properties of carbon dioxide:
Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas
Slightly soluble in water 
Very soluble in sodium hydroxide
Changes moist blue litmus paper from blueto redConfirmation test for carbon dioxide:Limewater test:
Carbon dioxide turns the limewater cloudyRespirationComparison between inhaled and exhaled air:
InhaledExhaled Nitrogen 78%Nitrogen 78%Inert gases 0.9%Inert gases 0.9%Oxygen 21%Oxygen 16%Carbon dioxide – 0.03%Carbon dioxide – 0.03%
Combustion:
2
 
Density = ____mass of substance (g)___ Volume of substance cm
3
 
Metal Non - MetalOxygenGlucoseCarbon dioxideEnergywater 
Glucose + oxygen water + carbon dioxide + energyCarbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxideHydrocarbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide + water 
 
CHAPTER 6
FORMS
of energy:
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
Heat energy
Light energy
Chemical energy
Sound energy
Electrical energy
 Nuclear energyPotential energy:
Energy stored in an object due to its positionor conditionKinetic energy:
Energy stored in any moving objectHeat energy:
Is a type of energy that rises the temperatureof an object.Light energy:
Energy that enables us to seeChemical energy:
Energy stored in chemical substances
Eq: Food, battery, fuelSound energy:
Energy that is produced in vibrating objectElectrical energy:
Is produced by an electric charge or current Nuclear energy:
Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
SOURCES
of Energy:
 
Fossil fuels
Biomass fuels
Wind
Water 
Sun
Radioactive substances
Geothermal energyRenewable & Non-renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources:
Solar 
Water 
Wind
Biomass
Geothermal
Wave/tidal Non-renewable:
fossil fuels
radioactive substances 
CHAPTER 7
heat is a form of energy
heat can be produced by the following ways:
o
rubbing two objects together 
o
 burning objects
o
electricity that runs through acoiled wire
heat causes solids, liquids and gases toexpand and contract
differences between heat and temperature
HeatTemperature
A form of energyThe degree of hotnessor coldness of asubstanceUnit = Joule (J)Unit = Kelvins (K)Heat flows in three different ways:1.Conduction
is the flow of heat through solid2.Convection
is the flow of heat through fluids such as ingases and in liquids3.Radiation
is the transfer of heat through vacuum
(Heat flows from hotter area to colder area)
Land breeze:Sea breeze:
3
 
At night
Sea is warmer than land
Cool air from land flows to thesea as land breeze
During day
Land is warmer than the sea
Less dense hot air on land rises
Cool air from the sea flows towardsthe land as sea breeze

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