g. Section XI. -- Complete section.For military police units with limited time, it is recommended that in addition to the above, sections VI,VIII, IX, X, XII, and XIV be practiced in their entirety.5.
BACKGROUND OF UNARMED DEFENSE.
-- The original name of the method described in thismanual has been lost in antiquity, but the art was developed by Chinese monks approximately in thetwelfth century. The monastic rules forbade the monks to use weapons, but as they were constantlyattacked by nomads and robber bands, they had to devise a weaponless defense, utilizing only the skill of their bodies and the quickness of their brains. Through long experiment, trial and error, and loss of lifethey developed a means of defense that has remained basically unchanged through centuries. Late in thetwelfth century, the Japanese became aware of this art and, characteristically, they copied it and claimedit as their own. They named this art "Jiu Jitsu," and established a genealogy for it which they claimedextended back to their mythological age. The Jiu means "gentle" and Jitsu means "art" or "practice."Therefore Jiu Jitsu is "the gentle art." The systems taught were multitudinous and varied until the year 1882 when Professor Jigoro Kano, a man who had studied all the better systems, established the Kodokan,"a school for studying the way" and called his system "Judo." This name means "the way, or principle."This school, with its roots n Tokyo, sent out branches throughout the civilized world. One branch, foundedin 1921, had its headquarters in New York. It was called "The New York Dojo," and while catering mainlyto Japanese, admitted Occidentals who were interested. [EN1] However, progress of the Occidentals wasslow, due to the fact that their instruction was mainly in competitive work. The holds were ineffective because the correct principles were not taught. Very little of the defensive or protective tactics wastaught. Since this was the type of Judo in which the average American was interested, he soon droppedout of the school. A group of young Americans, disgusted with this procedure, set out to develop a systemof self-defense suited to the American temperament and needs. They called their organization "TheAmerican Judo Club" and dedicated themselves to removing Oriental terminology from the new system.[EN2] They produced as good a system as the Japanese and far outstripped it in the effectiveness of method. With a knowledge of American unarmed defense the American soldier will be equipped to meetthe Judo men in the game which they have chosen to claim as their own. [EN3]6.
METHODS OF TRAINING.
a. Regulation physical training formations may be used for practice (see FM 21-20.) From the extendedformation of four columns have the first and second columns face each other and the third and the fourthcolumns face each other. Each man will then have a partner with whom to practice. Special note should be taken that the even-numbered men
do not uncover.
The above formation applies to a unit the size of a platoon or larger. Any unit smaller than a platoon should be formed in a column of twos and then have thecolumns face each other. It is recommended that when working throwing tricks, twice the normal distance be taken. [E.g., two arms distance between men rather than one.] b. The instructor will explain the attack and demonstrate the proper defense on a competent assistant,executing the movement rapidly to show its effectiveness. The defense is then executed again, as near slow motion as possible with an accompanying explanation. The attacking squads and the opposingdefending squads are then designated, possibly using the letter "a" for attackers and letter "b" for defenders. At a given signal the attackers move to the attack and the defenders attempt to work the proper defense while the assistant instructors make corrections.
Emphasis should be placed on precision first.Speed can be developed later.
[Italics added.] Most of the defenses are equally effective on either side.When two defending squads have mastered the defense, the situation is reversed and the defending squads become attackers. Progress to a new trick is made only when the students have demonstrated a workingknowledge of the previous one. No more than three tricks should be taught in any 30-minute period, asconfusion would result. Encourage the men to practice in their spare time, emphasizing that proficiency inunarmed defense is predicated on repetition until a movement becomes almost instinctive. It is notdifficult to arouse the interest of the men in this subject, since the desire to excel physically is acharacteristic of the average American. [EN4] Since even the smallest can be shown that his lack of size isno handicap, there will be no difficulty arising from indifference.
The main problem will be to keep
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