Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
IVMS| General Pathology, Inflammation Notes

IVMS| General Pathology, Inflammation Notes

Ratings: (0)|Views: 49 |Likes:
IVMS| General Pathology, Inflammation Notes
IVMS| General Pathology, Inflammation Notes

More info:

Published by: Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. on Dec 08, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/09/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Inflammation Notes
Access companion PowerPoint
Website: IVMS Mini-Medical School Course
Series Target Audience:
Medical students and student physicians preparing to sit for the USMLE Step 1
 
Inflammation1
Inflammation
Toes inflamed by chilblains
Inflammation
(Latin,
€nflamm•
, "I ignite, set alight")is part of the complex biological response of vasculartissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damagedcells, or irritants. The classical signs of acuteinflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and lossof function. Inflammation is a protective attempt by theorganism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiatethe healing process. Inflammation is not a synonym forinfection, even in cases where inflammation is causedby infection. Although infection is caused by amicroorganism, inflammation is one of the responses of the organism to the pathogen. However, inflammationis a stereotyped response, and therefore it is consideredas a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared toadaptive immunity, which is specific for each pathogen.Progressive destruction of the tissue would compromise the survival of the organism. However, chronicinflammation can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, periodontitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoidarthritis, and even cancer (e.g., gallbladder carcinoma). It is for that reason that inflammation is normally closelyregulated by the body.Inflammation can be classified as either
acute
or
chronic
.
 Acute inflammation
is the initial response of the body toharmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes (especially granulocytes) fromthe blood into the injured tissues. A cascade of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatoryresponse, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue.Prolonged inflammation, known as
chronic inflammation
, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present atthe site of inflammation and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from theinflammatory process.
Causes
BurnsChemical irritantsFrostbiteToxinsInfection by pathogensPhysical injury, blunt or penetratingImmune reactions due to hypersensitivityIonizing radiationForeign bodies, including splinters, dirt and debrisStressTraumaAlcohol
 
Inflammation2
Types
AppendicitisPhlebitisBursitisRSD/CRPSColitisRhinitisCystitisTendonitisDermatitisTonsillitisVasculitis
Comparison between acute and chronic inflammation:
AcuteChronic
Causativeagent 
Bacterial pathogens, injured tissuesPersistent acute inflammation due to non-degradablepathogens, viral infection, persistent foreign bodies, orautoimmune reactions
 Major cellsinvolved 
neutrophils (primarily), basophils (inflammatory response), andeosinophils (response to helminth worms and parasites), mononuclearcells (monocytes, macrophages)Mononuclear cells (monocytes, macrophages,lymphocytes, plasma cells), fibroblasts
 Primarymediators
Vasoactive amines, eicosanoidsIFN-and other cytokines, growth factors, reactiveoxygen species, hydrolytic enzymes
Onset 
ImmediateDelayed
 Duration
Few daysUp to many months, or years
Outcomes
Resolution, abscess formation, chronic inflammationTissue destruction, fibrosis, necrosis
Cardinal signsThe classic signs and symptoms of acute inflammation:
EnglishLatin
Redness
 Rubor 
*Swelling
 Tumor 
*Heat
 Calor 
*Pain
 Dolor 
*Loss of function
 Functio laesa
**
All the above signs may be observed in specific instances, but no single sign must, as a matter of course, be present. These are the original, or "cardinal signs" of inflammation.*
 Functio laesa
is an apocryphal notion, as it is not unique to inflammation and is a characteristic of many disease states.
**

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->