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When Japan Was "Champion of the Darker Races": Satokata Takahashi and the Flowering of Black Messianic Nationalism • by Ernest Allen, Jr.

When Japan Was "Champion of the Darker Races": Satokata Takahashi and the Flowering of Black Messianic Nationalism • by Ernest Allen, Jr.

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THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24, NO.1
THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24, NO.1

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Categories:Topics, Japanese
Published by: ☥ The Drop Squad Public Library ☥ on Dec 09, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/15/2014

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When
Japan
Was
 Champion
of
the
Darker
Races
:
N
Sa
tokata
Takahashi
and
the
Flowering
of
Black
Messianic
Nationalism*
m
F
n
late
September
1942
in
a
series
ofhighly
publicized
raids,
federal
agents
in
Chicago
arrested
eighty-five
African
Amricans
Three
women
and
nine
men
were
charged
wth
sedi-tion
;
the
remainder
were
accused
of
draft
eva-
sion
Indicted
on
the
formr
charge
were
hlijah
Muhammad,
Linn
Karriem
and
Paul-
ine
Bahar
of
theAllah
Temple
of
Islam[ATO]
;
Mttie
Maud
Lena
Gordon,
Seon
Jones
Wlliam
Gordon,
and
David
J
 
Logan
of
the
Peace
Movemnt
ofEthiopia
[PME]
;
Charles
Newby
 aka
FatherDvine
Haasan)
ofthe
Colored
American
National
Oganization
[CANO]
;
Stokely
Delmar
Hart
James
Graves,
and
Annabelle
Moore
of
the
Brotherhood
of
Liberty
for
the
Back
People
of
America
[BLBPA]
 
and
Frederick
H
Hammurabi
Robb
of
the
Century
Service
Exchange
l
Several
days
earlier,five
mmers
of
theEthiopian
Pacific
Movement
[EPM
 
Robert
O
Jordan
 aka
Leonard
Robert
Jordan),
James
Thornhill,
Lester
Holness,
the
Rev
Ralph
Geen
Best,
and
Joseph
Hartrey
an
Irishman
 
were
indictedin
New
York
City
on
the
more
serious
charges
 
Less
raucously,
back
in
May,
mnisters
David
X
aka
David
Jones
and
David
Duvon)
and
Sultan
Muham
md
of
the
ATO sWashington
and
Ml-
waukee
temples,
respectively,
were
detaned
on
charges
of
sedition
as
well
 
}
In
October
the
head
of
the
International
Reassemble
ofthe
Church
of
Freedom
League,Inc
[IRCFL],
the
Rev
Ethelbert
 
Broaster,
was
arrested
in
New
Oleans
 
The
followng
January a
second
round
of
indictmnts
occurred
in
East
St
 
THE
BLACKSCHOLAR
 
VOLUME
24,
NO
1
by
Ernest
Ailen,
Jr
 
Louis,
where
Bshop
David
 
Erwn
and
Gen-
eral
Lee
Butler,
two
leadersofthe
Pacific
Movemnt
of
theEastern
Wrld
[PMEW
were
also
charged
wth
crims
against
the
State
 
In
Newark,
seven
mmers
of
the
House
of
Israel
[HO]
 
Brother
Rueben
Is
rael
 aka
Askew
Thomas),
Alfred
Wods,
Is
aah
Cad,
Robert
Moses,
OscarRumin,
DawseyJohnson,
and
Jeremah
Ardis
 
were
seized
as
draft
evaders
 
There
had
been
earlier
aswellas
subse-
quent
arrestsfor
draft
evasion,
too,
including
the
roundup
of
12
mmers
of
the
Kansas
City
branch
of
the
Moorish
Science
Temple
of
Amrica
[MSTA]
in
July
1942
fl
These
accusa-
tions
against
outspoken
African
Amrican
op-
ponents
of
Wrld
Wr
II
involved
violations
of
the
Espionage
Act
of1917
and
the
Selective
Traning
and
Service
Act
of
1940
y
More
to
the
point
:
in
the
eyes
of
governmnt,
the
pro-
Japanese
loyalties
of
thedefendants
in
the
above
cases
constituted
a
threat
to
national
security
 
Indeed,
the
reported
remarks
of
an
ATO
mmber
appeared
togive
substance
to
such
concerns
thewhite
devils
desire
thecolored
people
to
diewth
them
n
the
Arm
and
Navy
we
don t
want
to
be
wth
him
n
the
Arm
or
out
 
the
tim
has
come
when
the
white
devils
wll
be
destroyed
by
dark
mnkind
 
the
eagles
seen
on
United
States
money
and
the
uniforms
of
service
men
is
the
mark
of
the
beast
and
if
you
havethat
mark
theJapaneseare
going
to
shoot
at
it
when
they
com
here
 
The
best
known
today
of
all
the
above
groups,
the
Allah
Temple
of
Islam
was
an
off
PAGE
23
 
 STR CT
When
Japan
Was
 Champion
of
the
Darker
Races
:
Satokata
Takahashi
and
the
Flowering
of
BlackMessianicNationalism
During
Wrld
War
II,
some
 25
African
Americans
wer
e
arrested
for
resisting
the
deaf
~`
orfor
exercising
seditious
behavior
 
The
twentyorso
 
personsheld
on
the
more
serious
charges
included
Elijah
Muhammad
of
the
Allah
Temple
of
Islam
a
religious
association
Mttie
Maud
LensGordon
 
the
Peace
Movement
ofEthiopia,
an
African
repatriation
movement
in
the
Garvey
tradition
the
Rev
EthelbertA
Broaster
of
the
International
Reassemble
of
the
Church
of
Freedom
League,
Inc
 
a
black
Hebrew
organization
 
and
Bishop
David
 
Erwnand
Genera
Lee
Butler,
leaders
of
the
Pacific
Movement
 the
Eastern
World,
an
emgra-
tionistgroup
The
arrests
brought
tolight
the
existence
of
strong,
pro-
Japanese
sentiments
amongAfrican
Americans
thatthe
authorities,
not
to
mention
black
mddle-class
spokespersons,
quickly
dismssed
as
the
uttering
of
a
small
number
of
fanatics
The
reality,
however,
was
that
pro Japan
feelings
among
black
workers
as
well
as
theblack
mddle
class
had
been
building
since
the
turnof
the
centccry,
following
Japan s
celebrated
victor
y
over
the
Russian
fleet
 
This
mood
wrrs
given
greater
impetusduring
the
worst
years
of
the
Great
Depression
by
the
appearance
in
Detroit
of
a
apanese
ndtional
known
as
Major
Satokata
Takahashi,
who
took
command
of
an
associa-
tion
known
as
The
Development
of
Our
Own
M
Takahashi s
initial
organizing
activities
in
Detroit,
Chicagq
and
St
 
Louis,
and
the
 ripple
of
j ects
therefromled
to
the
messianic
expecta-
tion
on
the
part
 
ens
of
thousands
of
African
Americans
throughout
the
mdwest,
the
upper
and
lower
Mssissippi
Delta,
east~entral
Okla-
homa
and
the
New
York
NezuJersey
region
thatJapan simperial
army
would
free
them
rom
he
ravages
of
American
racism
Through
the
em
ployof
newspaper
articles,
FBI
documents,
mlitary
intelligencereports,
and
court
records
the
author
has
reconstructed
a
history
which,
up
until
thepresent
 
had
been
almost
completelyforgotten
P GE
2
4
 
THE
 I CKSCHOL R
 
VGLUME
24,
NO
1
 
shoot
of
theNation
of
Islam
[NO],
founded
in
Detroit
in
1930
by
thelegendary
 
D
Fard
[pronounced
Far-ad
].
After
M
 
Fard
de-
partedthe
mdwest
in
1934,the
NO
became
wacked
by
factional
disputes
bearing
on
1
the
propriety
of
human
sacrifice
;
2)
NO
 dis-loyalty to
the
United
States
;
and
3)
whether
 
Fard
should
be
considered
a
prophet
of
God,
as
he
himself
maintained,
or
God
incar-
nateIn
the
resulting
turmoil,
one
of
Fard s
lieutenants,
Elijah
Muhammad
was
forced
toflee
Detroit
for
Chicago,
where
a
NO
branch
 
one
ostensibly
loyalto
M
 
Muhammad
 
had
been
in
operation
since
1932
 
M
 
Muhammad
christened
his
new
association
the
Allah
Temple
of
Islam
his
followers
be-
came
known
as
the
Temple
Peope
The
De-
troit
NO
was
eventually
folded
intothe
ATO,
but
it
was
not
until
the
late
1950s
that
the
unified
and
greatly
expanded
organization
re-
established
itself
as
theNation
of
Islam
 
he
NO
worldview
was
domnated
byan
apocalyptic
and
prophetic
vision
which
held
that
the
African
American,
the
 
origi-
nal
or
 Asiatic
black
man,
fell
into
a
state
of
social
domnation
that
began
wth
slavery
 
1
This
situation
was
a
direct
result
of
the
ma-
chinations
of
an
evil
back
scientist,
Yakub,
who
grafted
white
peope,
also
known
as devils,
from
original
back
peope
a
little
more
than
6,000
years
ago
God
had
granted
towhites
the
rule
of
the
panet
for
six
mllen-
nia,
after
which
time
a
fiery
battle
was
to
take
pace
in
the
sky
where
they
would
suffer
per-
manent
defeat,
and
the
original
sense
of
or-
der
restored
to
earth
The
 devil s
rule
was
actually
up
in
1914,
wth
an
additional
grace
period
granted
by
Allah
in
order
to
allow
the
Nation
of
Islam
to
save
and
convert
as
many
African
Americans
as
possible
to
their
origi=
nal
religion
 
4
Wthin
NO
eschatology
therearrived
a
fusion
of
mllenarian
and
African
American
nationalist
traditions,
wth
Japan s
acknowedged
leadership
role
couched
in
messianic
terms
 
But
the
NO s
now
famliarstory
of
the
Mother
Ship,
or
Ezekiel s
Wheel, °
was
cast
in
a
somewhat
different
light
in
the
early
1940s
The
Mother
Ship,
it
seem,
was
in
the
possessionof
Japan,
theblueprintsfor
which
had
been
drawnup
 inthe
Holy
City
of
THEBIACKSCHOLAR
YOLUME24,N0
1
Mecca
and
sent
to
theJapanese
government
for
development
:
Japan
has
had
for
many
years
a
monster
airplane,
known
to
the
Moslems
as
a
 mother
airplane
The
 mother
airplane
is
said
to
carry1,000small
airplanes,
eachofwhich
carries
bombs,
which
will
beused
against
the
white
man
Each
bomb
is
saidto
besuch
size
to
penetratethe
earth ssurface
for
a
distance
of
of
one
mle,
and
to
destroy
an
area
of
fifty
square
mles
when
it
explodes
 
The
Moslem
have
alsotoldtheir
people
that
the
Japanese
have
superior
equpmnt
of
every
kind
and
description
.
hicago-based
organization
begun
inlate
1932,the
Peace
Movement
of
Ethiopa
essentially
advocated
 Garveyism
wthout
Gar-vey
hat
is,
embraced
in
its
totality
the
doctrine
of
the
Universal
NegroImprovement
Association
[UNIA]
but
wthneither
desire
nor
need
for
Marcus
Garvey spersonal
leader-
ship
Ideologically
speaking,the
PME
came
torely
moreupon
thesupport
of
white
racists
for
implementing
its
 Back-to-Africa
pro-
gram
than
had
the
UNA
but
in
truth,
that
was
the
very
direction
in
which
M
.
Garveyhimself
had
been
heading
after
1921
.
PME
head
and
former
UNA mmer
Mttie
Maud
Lena
Gordon
sought
support
for
African
American
repatriation
to
Africa
from
Presi-
dent
Roosevelt
in
1933,
and,
towards
the
latter
partof
the
decade
received
initial
legislative
backing
for
such
from
the
notoriously
anti-
back
Mssissippi
Senator
Theodore
Blbo
 
Intertwned
wth
the
PMEs
repatriation
pro-
gram
was
a
commtment
to
Japanese
war
aims
Among
numerous
other
charges,
President
Gordon
was
accused
of
having
declared
that
 on
December
7th,
1941,
one
billion
back
peope
struck
for
freedom
a
rather
unam
bguous
reference
to
Japan s
attack
on
Pearl
Harbor
 
9
Much
less
is
known
of
theColored
Ameri-
can
National
Organization,
reportedly
foun-
ded
in
Chicago
by
Charles
Newby
and
Stokely
Delmar
Hart
in
1939
.
Newby,
who
once
ma-
triculated
at
Leavenworth
followng
a
convic-
tion
for
auto
theft,
was
credited
wth
beingthe
originatorofthe
slogan,
 Talk
Black,
See
Black,
Walk
Back
and
Mnd
Your
Own
Back
Business
.
z
 
It
was
saidthat
at
CANO
gather-
ings
Japanese
General
Hdeki
Tojo
 was
praised
as
a
comng
saviour
of
the
Negro
from
the
American
white,
and
that
 virtually
all
Negro
leaders,
including
Joe
Louis,
his
wfe
PAGE
2
5

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