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 Project no. (GOCE) 003985Acronym: EuroDemoProject title: European Platform for Demonstration of Efficient Soil and GroundwaterRemediationInstrument: Coordination ActionThematic Priority: Global change and ecosystems
D6-2 Status report on technological reliability for demonstrated soil andgroundwater management technologies with special focus on the situationin Europe (update on the bioremediation part only)
Due date of deliverable: November 2005Actual submission date: November 2005, revision February 2007Start date of project: 01.01.2005 Duration: 3 yearsOrganisation name of lead contractor for this deliverable: Universität LüneburgRevision [draft, 1, 2, …]
Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
Dissemination LevelPU
Public PU
Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services)
Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services)
Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services)
State-Of-The-Art-Report: Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Technologies CG 6 Technical Reliability 1
1 Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Technologies (EISB)
1.1 Introduction
Bioremediation relies on microorganisms to biologically degrade groundwater contami-nants through a process called biodegradation. It may be engineered and accomplishedin two general ways: (1) stimulating native microorganisms by adding nutrients, oxygen,or other electron acceptors (a process called biostimulation); or (2) providing supple-mentary pregrown microorganisms to the contaminated site to augment naturally occur-ring microorganisms (a process called bioaugmentation) (AFCEE, 2004; ITRC, 2002;U.S.EPA, 2000a; U.S.EPA, 2004b). This technology mainly focuses on remediating or-ganic chemicals such as fuels and chlorinated solvents. One approach, aerobic biore-mediation, involves the delivery of oxygen (and potentially other nutrients) to the aquiferto help native microorganisms reproduce and degrade the contaminant (U.S.EPA,2004b). Another approach, anaerobic bioremediation, circulates electron donor materi-als—for example, food-grade carbohydrates such as edible oils, molasses or lactic acidwhey—in the absence of oxygen throughout the contaminated zone to stimulate an-aerobic microorganisms to consume the contaminant (AFCEE, 2004; DoD, 2002). Insome cases, pregrown microbes may be injected into the contaminated area to helpsupplement existing microorganisms and enhance the degradation of the contaminant,a process known as bioaugmentation. A potential advantage of bioremediation is itsability to treat the contaminated groundwater in place with naturally occurring microor-ganisms, rather than bringing contaminants to the surface. By using native microorgan-isms, rather than injecting additional ones, cleanup can be more cost-effective at somesites. However, heterogeneous subsurfaces can make delivering nutrient/oxygen solu-tions to the contaminated zone difficult by trapping or affecting movement of both con-taminants and groundwater. Also, nutrients for stimulating the microorganisms can beconsumed rapidly near the injection well, thereby limiting the microorganisms’ contactwith the contaminants, or stimulating biological growth at the injection site. In summary,this technology avoids the costs associated with bringing water to the surface for treat-ment; instead, the main costs associated with bioremediation include: delivery of theamendments to the subsurface (which varies depending on the depth of contamination),the cost of the amendments themselves, and monitoring of the treatment.This report focuses on the approach of enhanced in situ anaerobic bioremediation ofchlorinated solvents, because chlorinated solvents are the most common groundwatercontaminants and therefore numerous laboratory studies as well as pilot and field appli-cations have been or currently are being conducted. To date, enhanced anaerobic bio-remediation has been applied at over 600 sites (AFCEE, 2004).
State-Of-The-Art-Report: Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Technologies CG 6 Technical Reliability 
1.2 Enhanced In Situ Anaerobic Bioremediation of chlorinated sol-vents
Enhanced in situ anaerobic bioremediation can be an effective method of degradingvarious chlorinated solvents dissolved in groundwater, including chloroethenes, chloro-ethanes, and chloromethanes. Collectively, these compounds (some of which are deg-radation products of chlorinated solvents) are referred to as chlorinated aliphatic hydro-carbons (CAHs) (AFCEE, 2004; Cope and Hughes, 2001; ITRC, 2004; U.S.EPA,2000a).Bioremediation of CAHs can occur through natural mechanism (natural attenuation orintrinsic bioremediation or by enhancing the natural mechanisms (enhanced bioreme-diation). The addition of an organic substrate to an aquifer has the potential to furtherstimulate microbial growth and development, creating an anaerobic environment inwhich rates of anaerobic degradation of CAHs may be enhanced. Therefore, a variety oforganic substrates have been applied to the subsurface to promote anaerobic degrada-tion of CAHs to innocuous end products. In some cases, microorganisms also may beadded (bioaugmentation), but only if the natural microbial population is incapable of per-forming the required transformations.The most common chlorinated solvents released to the environment include tetra-chloroethene (PCE, or perchloroethene), trichloroethene (TCE), trichloroethane (TCA),and carbon tetrachloride (CT). These chlorinated solvents are problematic because oftheir health hazards and their resistance to natural degradation processes. Becausethese compounds exist in an oxidized state, they are generally not susceptible to aero-bic oxidation processes (with the possible exception of cometabolism). However, oxi-dized compounds are susceptible to reduction under anaerobic conditions by either bi-otic (biological) or abiotic (chemical) processes. Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation isintended to exploit primarily biotic anaerobic processes to degrade CAHs in groundwa-ter (AFCEE, 2004; Suthersan, 2001).Other common groundwater contaminants that are subject to reduction reactions arealso susceptible to enhanced anaerobic bioremediation. While not addressed in thisreport, constituents that can also potentially be treated with this approach include thefollowing:
Chlorinated pesticides (e.g., chlordane), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), andchlorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (e.g., pentachlorophenol);
Oxidizers such as perchlorate and chlorate;
Explosive and ordnance compounds;
Dissolved metals (e.g., hexavalent chromium); and

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