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Table Of Contents

1 Introduction
2 Climate Change
3 The Urgent Need for Energy
4 The Environmental Impact of Energy
5 Carbon Capture and Storage
6 Stabilising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations
7 Geo-Engineering as a Means of Stabilising Climate
8 Energy Sources, Energy Carriers and Energy Uses
9 A Matter of Scales
10 Small Carbon-Neutral Energy
10.1 Ocean Tides, Waves and Currents
10.2 Hydroenergy
10.3 Wind
10.4 Biomass
10.5 Geothermal
11 The Three Truly Big Energy Resources
11.1 Nuclear Energy
11.2 Solar Energy
11.3 Fossil Fuels with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage
11.4 Summary
12 Capture of Carbon Dioxide Directly from Ambient Air
13 A Revolution in the Energy Sector
14 Conclusions
Development for Technology Deployment
2 Reasons for Incentivising CCS Capture Projects
Deployment
3 Features of Effective Incentives for Power Plants with CCS
4 Example CCS Incentives for the Electricity Sector
Plants
4.2 Electricity Emissions Performance Standards (EPSs)
4.3 A Sectoral CCS Standard
Ready (CCR) Plants
6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Commercial Deployment
1 Background
2 CCS Programs and Strategies
2.1 General Policy
2.2 Governmental CCS Initiatives and Funding
2.3 Black Coal Mining Industry Initiatives
3 CCS R&D Activities in Australia
Organisation (CSIRO)
Technologies (CO2CRC)
3.3 Centre for Low Emission Technology (cLET)
3.4 University Research Activities
4 CCS Projects in Australia
4.1 Commercial-Scale Projects Incorporating CCS
4.2 Large-Scale Demonstration Projects
4.3 Pilot-Scale Demonstrations
4.4 Storage Projects
5 CCS Legislation and Regulation
5.1 Regulatory Guiding Principles
Storage Act 2006 (OPA)
5.3 State CCS Legislation
6 CCS Challenges in Australia
3 The Economic Case for UCG
4 An Introduction to UCG Technology
4.1 Gasification Configuration and Control
4.2 Directional Drilling
5 Current Status of UCG Deployment Worldwide
5.1 UK and Europe
5.2 North America
5.3 Asia
5.4 Australia
5.5 Africa
7 Approaches to Environmental Risk Assessment
8 Linking UCG to CCS
9 North East England Case Study
10 Concluding Remarks on Scale of Opportunity and Challenges
1 Overview
Industry
2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Cement Manufacture
2.1 Cement Manufacture
2.2 Incentives for Carbon Reduction
2.3 Costs Associated with Carbon Emissions
3 Options for Mitigation
3.1 Mitigation in Cement Manufacture
3.2 Carbon Capture and Cement Manufacture
3.3 Removing Barriers to Development
4 Conclusions
Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide
2 Geology and CO2 Storage
2.1 Rock Characteristics
2.2 CO2 Properties and Geological Storage
2.3 Pressure
4.2 Underground Coal Gasification Cavities
4.3 CO2 Storage as CO2 Hydrates
4.4 CO2 Storage in Igneous/Metamorphic Rocks
5 Storage Capacity
5.1 The Resource Pyramid
5.2 Estimating Storage Capacity
6 Storage Site Operation
6.1 Geological Characterisation
6.2 Risk Assessment
6.3 Measurement, Monitoring and Verification (MMV)
6.4 Leakage
7 Public Awareness of CO2 Storage
8 Conclusions
1.2 Decomposition
1.3 Soil Organic Matter
1.4 Characteristics and Age of Soil Carbon
1.5 Losses to Water
2 Factors Influencing Carbon Accumulation
2.1 Climate
2.2 Plant Inputs
2.3 Other Organic Inputs
2.4 Tillage
2.5 Grazing
2.6 Drainage/Irrigation
2.7 Erosion
2.8 Fire Cycles
Characteristics
3.1 Arable
3.2 Grassland
3.3 Forest/Woodland
3.4 Semi-Natural
3.5 Land-Use Change
4 Climatic Zones other than Cool Temperate
4.1 Warm Temperate
4.2 Tropical
5 The Quantification of Carbon-Sequestration Strategies
5.1 Worldwide Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential
5.2 Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential for Europe
5.3 Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential for the UK
5.4 Biochar Additions
5.5 Other Greenhouse Gases and Carbon Equivalents
5.6 Whole Cycle Analysis
6 Limitations and Challenges
6.1 Realistic Goals
6.2 Upper Limits and Timescales
6.3 Competing Processes
Carbon Capture and Storage in Forests
Mitigation
2 Carbon Pools and Flows in Forests
3.1 A Focus on the United Kingdom
3.2 A Focus on Transitional Countries of Ukraine and Slovakia
3.3 A Focus on The Netherlands
4 A Focus on Tropical Forests
Forests
7 Social Considerations of Carbon Sink and Storage in Forests
1 Summary
2 Carbon Uptake by Oceans
Carbon in Seawater
2.2 Carbon Fixation and Controlling Factors
3 Carbon Transport and Storage by Oceans
3.1 The Solubility Pump
3.2 The Biological Pumps
4 Consequences of Too Little Uptake
Climate
4.2 Changes in Net Primary Productivity
5 Consequences of Too Much Uptake
5.1 Ocean Acidification
5.2 Oxygen Depletion and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)
1.1 Methane: Marine Sources and Sinks
1.2 Arctic Ocean Methane and Global Warming
2 Methane Hydrates
2.1 Methane Hydrates and Hydrate Stability
2.2 The ‘Clathrate Gun’ Hypothesis
2.3 Methane Hydrates – Arctic Ocean
2.4 Methane Hydrate Exploitation in the Arctic
3 Permafrost
3.1 Permafrost Relevance to Methane
3.2 Permafrost and Global Warming
4 Methane in the Arctic Ocean
4.1 Distribution, Sources and Sinks
4.2 Methane and Sea-Ice
5 Conclusions
Subject Index
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carbon capture - Sequestration and Storage 2010.pdf

carbon capture - Sequestration and Storage 2010.pdf

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Published by Wladimir Mosquera

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Published by: Wladimir Mosquera on Dec 09, 2013
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