1ElectrochemistryPrepared by V. Aditya vardhanadichemadi @ gmail.com
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* Electrochemistry deals with1) The processes in which electrical energy is converted to chemical energy.2) The processes in which chemical energy is converted to electrical energy.3) Preparation of metals and alloys using electricity.Based on electrical conductivity, substances are divided into two types.
- which can conduct electricity.e.g.Al, Cu, Fe, Graphite etc...
- which resist the conduction of electricity.e.g.Diamond, Glass, Plastics etc....The electrical conductors are again divided into two types as follows;
i) Metallic or electronic conductors:
- The conductors which conduct the electricity through the elec-trons.e.g.All metals, Graphite etc...*No chemical reaction occurs during the conduction of electricity.*Conductivity decreases with increase in temperature due to vibrational disturbances.
ii) Electrolytes :-
The substances which furnish oppositely charged ions for the conduction of electricity.e.g :- NaCl, KCl, CH
COOH, HCl etc.......*There is flow of ions towards the oppositely charged electrodes.*During conduction of electricity through electrolytes, oxidation occurs at anode whereas reductionoccurs at cathode i.e., a chemical reaction occurs.*The conductivity increases with increase in temperature as the extent of ionization increases.
Non electrolytes :-
The substances which do not furnish ions for electrical conduction are called non -electrolytes.e.g : urea, glucose, sucrose etc.....
Strong electrolytes :
undergo complete ionization in watere.g. NaCl, KCl, K
, HCl, H
Weak electrolytes :
under go partial ionization in watere.g. HF, CH
OH, HCOOH etc....
Resistance and ohm's law :-
According to Ohm's law, resistance (R) offered by an electrolyte in asolution is proportional to length (
) and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area (a) of electrodes.Resistance (R)length()area(a)
orR = s
Wheres = specific resistance (resistivity)