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Electrochemistry IPE

Electrochemistry IPE

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Published by AdiChemAdi
Easy study material for 10+2 AP chemistry students. Specially prepared for Intermediate Public Examination, Andhra Pradesh.
Easy study material for 10+2 AP chemistry students. Specially prepared for Intermediate Public Examination, Andhra Pradesh.

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Published by: AdiChemAdi on Aug 24, 2009
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07/20/2013

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1ElectrochemistryPrepared by V. Aditya vardhanadichemadi @ gmail.com
   P  r  e  p  a  r  e  d    b   y
   V .   A   D   I   T   Y  A    V  A   R   D   H  A   N
   H   T   T   P  :   /   /   W   W   W .  A   D   I   C   H   E   M   I   S   T   R   Y .   C  O   M
VISIT THE FOLLOWING SITE FOR OTHER FILES AND UPDATES IF ANY
http://www.adichemistry.com
ELECTROCHEMISTRY
* Electrochemistry deals with1) The processes in which electrical energy is converted to chemical energy.2) The processes in which chemical energy is converted to electrical energy.3) Preparation of metals and alloys using electricity.Based on electrical conductivity, substances are divided into two types.
i) Conductors
- which can conduct electricity.e.g.Al, Cu, Fe, Graphite etc...
ii) Insulators
- which resist the conduction of electricity.e.g.Diamond, Glass, Plastics etc....The electrical conductors are again divided into two types as follows;
i) Metallic or electronic conductors:
- The conductors which conduct the electricity through the elec-trons.e.g.All metals, Graphite etc...*No chemical reaction occurs during the conduction of electricity.*Conductivity decreases with increase in temperature due to vibrational disturbances.
ii) Electrolytes :-
The substances which furnish oppositely charged ions for the conduction of electricity.e.g :- NaCl, KCl, CH
3
COOH, HCl etc.......*There is flow of ions towards the oppositely charged electrodes.*During conduction of electricity through electrolytes, oxidation occurs at anode whereas reductionoccurs at cathode i.e., a chemical reaction occurs.*The conductivity increases with increase in temperature as the extent of ionization increases.
Non electrolytes :-
The substances which do not furnish ions for electrical conduction are called non -electrolytes.e.g : urea, glucose, sucrose etc.....
Strong electrolytes :
undergo complete ionization in watere.g. NaCl, KCl, K
2
SO
4
, HCl, H
2
SO
4
,NaOH, NaNO
3
etc.....
Weak electrolytes :
under go partial ionization in watere.g. HF, CH
3
COOH, NH
4
OH, HCOOH etc....
Resistance and ohm's law :-
According to Ohm's law, resistance (R) offered by an electrolyte in asolution is proportional to length (
l
) and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area (a) of electrodes.Resistance (R)length()area(a)
l
i.e.,R
a
l
orR = s
.
 
a
l
Wheres = specific resistance (resistivity)
 
2ElectrochemistryPrepared by V. Aditya vardhanadichemadi @ gmail.com
   P  r  e  p  a  r  e  d    b   y
   V .   A   D   I   T   Y  A    V  A   R   D   H  A   N
   H   T   T   P  :   /   /   W   W   W .  A   D   I   C   H   E   M   I   S   T   R   Y .   C  O   M
s = R
.
a
l
Whena = 1 cm
2
and
l
= 1 cmThens = R
Specific resistance (s) :
The resistance shown by a material of 1 cm length and 1 cm
2
of cross sectionalarea is called specific resistance (or) resistivity.Units of 's's = R .
a
l
ohm .
2
cmcm
ohm . cm.(in CGS)or
ohm . m(in SI)
Conductance (C) :-
It is the reciprocal of resistance.C =
1R
C =
1axs
l
C = k xa
l
Wherek =
1s
= specific conductance (conductivity)
Cell constant :
The quantity,
la
is called cell constant.cell constant =
distance between two electrodesarea of cross section of electrodes
la
Specific conductance (k) :-
The conductance of 1 cm
3
solution is called specific conductance orconductivity.Units of 'k'= ohm
-1
cm
-1
or mho cm
-1
(C.G.S)= Siemen
.
m
-1
or S.m
-1
(S I)
Equivalent conductance (
) :-
The conductance of a solution containing one equivalent weight oelectrolyte present between two parallel electrodes separated by a unit distance of 1 cm (or) 1 m is calledequivalent conductance (
).
k x 1000N
WhereN = Normalityk = Specific conductanceUnits of 
''
-1-1-3
Ohm. cmequivalents . cm
 
3ElectrochemistryPrepared by V. Aditya vardhanadichemadi @ gmail.com
   P  r  e  p  a  r  e  d    b   y
   V .   A   D   I   T   Y  A    V  A   R   D   H  A   N
   H   T   T   P  :   /   /   W   W   W .  A   D   I   C   H   E   M   I   S   T   R   Y .   C  O   M
= ohm
-1
cm
2
equivalents
-1
(CGS)or= Siemen. m
2
. equivalent
-1
(S I)
Molar conductance
m
(
μ or Λ )
:-
The conductance shown by a solution containing 1 mole of electrolytepresent between two parallel electrodes separated by a unit distance of 1 cm or 1m is called molarconductance
k x 1000M
 
M = MolarityUnits :ohm
-1
. cm
2
. mol
-1
orSiemen . m
2
. mol
-1
Factors affecting conductivity of electrolytes :
*Strong electrolytes undergo complete ionization and hence show higher conductivities whereasweak electrolytes undergo partial ionization and hence show low conductivities in their solutions.* The ionic mobility decreases with increase in its size and hence conductivity also decreases.*In aqueous solutions the extent of hydration affect the mobility of the ion, which in turn affect theconductivity. Heavily hydrated ions show low conductance values.E.g.,In aqueous solutions Li
+
ion (with high charge density) is heavily hydrated than Cs
+
ion (with lowcharge density). Hence hydrated Li
+
bigger than hydrated Cs
+
. As a result, lithium salts show lowerconductivities compared to those of cesium salts in water.*Specific conductance (k) decreases with decrease in concentration of solution as the number of ions per unit volume decreases.*Equivalent or molar conductances increase with decrease in concentration (upon dilution) as theextent of ionization increases*Weak electrolytes undergo complete dissociation at infinite dilution and show the maximum con-ductance. The equivalent conductance and molar conductance of solutions at infinite dilutions are denotedby
(or)
0
and µ 
(or)
o
 
respectively..
Debye - Huckel - Onsagar equation
It is possible to determine the equivalent conductances of electrolytes at given concentration by usingDebye - Huckel - Onsagar equation.
co
Λ = Λ A c
Where
c
Λ
= equivalent conductance at given concentration.
o
Λ
= equivalent conductance at infinite dilution.c = concentration
5o1322
82.48.2 x 10A = aconstant = +
Λ
DTDT
D = Dipole moment of waterA straight line with negative slope is obtained when equivalent conductance values are plotted againstdifferent concentrations. The equivalent conductance at infinite dilution can be determined by extendingthis straight line to zero concentration.

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