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Behavioral Science

Behavioral Science

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Published by MedSchoolStuff
First Aid for the USMLE Step 1
2011 EXPRESS Workbook
First Aid for the USMLE Step 1
2011 EXPRESS Workbook

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Published by: MedSchoolStuff on Dec 10, 2013
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07/08/2014

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First Aid for the
® 
 USMLE Step 1 2011 EXPRESS workbook
page 1
Copyright © 2011 by MedIQ Learning, LLC All rights reserved
Behavioral Science
EPIDEMIOLOGY/BIOSTATISTICS
1. A case control study is described as _______________ (experimental/observational) and  _______________ (prospective/retrospective).
(p. 50)
 2. A cohort study is described as _______________ (experimental/observational) and  _______________ (prospective/retrospective).
(p. 50)
 3. True or False: In a cohort study, subjects are chosen on the basis of the presence or absence of risk factors.
(p. 50)
 _______________________________________________________________ 4. True or False: A cohort study involves following subjects over a period of time to study the development of disease.
(p. 50)
 _____________________________________________________ 5. True or False: A cross-sectional research study can show the correlation of a risk with a disease.
(p. 50)
 _________________________________________________________________________ 6. Describe the two general types of blinded studies.
(p. 50)
 _________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. What two major factors may limit the reliability of a meta-analysis?
(p. 50)
 ____________________ 
 
8. How does a low prevalence of disease affect the positive predictive value of a test?
(p. 51)
 ____  ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. In HIV testing, ELISA screening is _______________ (sensitive/specific) and has a high false- _______________ (negative/positive) rate, with a _______________ (high/low) threshold.
(p. 51)
 10. In HIV testing, the Western blot test is _______________ (sensitive/specific) and has a high false- _______________ (negative/positive) rate, with a _______________ (high/low) threshold.
(p. 51)
 11. How does a low prevalence of disease affect the negative predictive value of a test?
(p. 51)
 ___  ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. If a diagnostic test has 100% sensitivity, what should the value of the false-negative rate equal?
(p. 51)
 ___________________________________________________________________________ 13. If a diagnostic test has 100% specificity, what should the value of the false-negative rate equal?
(p. 51)
 ___________________________________________________________________________ 14. What measure of disease frequency is calculated by dividing the total number of cases in the population at a given time by the total population at a given time?
(p. 52)
 ____________________
 
Questions
 
page 2
First Aid for the
® 
 USMLE Step 1 2011 EXPRESS workbook 
 
Copyright © 2011 by MedIQ Learning, LLC All rights reserved
15. What measure of disease frequency is calculated by dividing the number of new cases in the population during a period by the total population at risk during that time?
(p. 52)
 ______________ 16. In chronic disease states such as diabetes, is the prevalence of disease greater than, less than, or equal to the incidence?
(p. 52)
 ______________________________________________________ 17. In acute disease states such as a common cold, is the prevalence of disease greater than, less than, or equal to the incidence?
(p. 52)
 _______________________________________________ 18. The statement "Patients with COPD had higher odds of a history of smoking than those without COPD" pertains to _______________ (odds ratio
 
/
 
relative risk).
(p. 52)
19. The statement "Smokers had a higher risk of developing COPD than did nonsmokers" pertains to  _______________ (odds ratio
 
/
 
relative risk).
(p. 52)
 20. True or False: When calculating the incidence of a disease, the total population at risk during a certain time should include people who have the disease.
(p. 52)
 ___________________________ 21. True or False: The odds ratio for a disease based on exposure to a risk factor approximates the relative risk if the prevalence of the disease is low.
(p. 52)
 ________________________________ 22. What epidemiologic measurement is equal to the difference in disease incidence between an exposed group and an unexposed group?
 (p. 52)
 _______________________________________ 23. _______________ (Precision/accuracy) refers to the trueness of test measurements (validity), while _______________ (precision/accuracy) refers to the consistency and reproducibility of a test and the absence of random variation in a test.
(p. 52)
 24. _______________ (Random/systematic) error reduces precision in a test, while _______________ (random/systemic) error reduces accuracy in a test.
(p. 52)
 25. Name four ways to reduce bias in epidemiologic studies.
(p. 53)
 ___________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ 26. What type of bias occurs when there are two closely associated factors and therefore the effect of one factor could change or confuse the effect of the other?
(p. 53)
 __________________________ 27. What is the name of the phenomenon whereby a researcher's belief in the efficacy of a treatment changes the outcome of that treatment?
(p. 53)
 ________________________________________ 28. In a data set that has a distribution with a negative skew, what is the relationship between the mean, the median, and the mode?
(p. 53
) _____________________________________________ 29. In a data set that has a distribution with a positive skew, what is the relationship between the mean, the median, and the mode?
(p. 53)
 __________________________________________________ 30. Which characteristic is least affected by outliers: mean, median, or mode?
(p. 53)
 ______________ 31. What is the term for the hypothesis that there is no association between the variables being studied?
(p. 54)
 _________________________________________________________________ 32. In statistical calculations, the
 value is equal to the probability of making what type of error?
(p. 54)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
 
First Aid for the
® 
 USMLE Step 1 2011 EXPRESS workbook
page 3
Copyright © 2011 by MedIQ Learning, LLC All rights reserved
33. In a statistical analysis, if
 = 0.03, what is the percentage of chance that the data will show a difference by chance alone when none truly exists?
(p. 54)
 _______________________________ 
 
34.
In statistical analyses, if β = 0.2, what
is the percentage of chance that the null hypothesis has been falsely accepted?
(p. 54)
 ______________________________________________________ 35. The power of a statistical test depends on which three factors?
(p. 54)
 _______________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ 36. What study parameter is calculated when the probability of making a type II error is subtracted from 1?
(p. 54)
 ______________________________________________________________________ 37. In a data set that has a normal (Gaussian) distribution, what percentage of the data falls within two standard deviations of the mean? What percentage falls within 3 SDs of the mean?
(p. 54)
  ______________________________________________________________________________ 38. If the 95% confidence interval for a mean difference between two variables includes 0, the null hypothesis _______________ (is/is not) rejected.
(p. 55)
 39. What type of statistical test is used to check for a difference between the means of three or more groups?
(p. 55)
 __________________________________________________________________ 40. What type of statistical test is used to check for a difference between the means of two groups?
(p. 55)
 ___________________________________________________________________________ 41. What statistical term's absolute value indicates the strength of the correlation between two variables?
(p. 55)
 ________________________________________________________________ 42. Given an example of primary, secondary, and tertiary disease prevention strategies.
(p. 55)
 _____  ______________________________________________________________________________ 43. List the 12 diseases that are reportable in all states.
(p. 56)
 _______________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ 44. List in order, from most to least common, the three leading causes of death for people 15-24 years old in the United States.
(p. 56)
 _____________________________________________________ 45. List in order, from most to least common, the three leading causes of death for people >65 years old in the United States.
(p. 56)
 _____________________________________________________ 46. What two federally funded healthcare programs originated from amendments to the Social Security  Act? Who is eligible for these programs?
(p. 56)
 ________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________
ETHICS
47. What are the four core ethical principles of medicine?
(p. 57)
 ______________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________

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